The energy saving tendencies, in reference to residential buildings, can be recently seen in Europe and in the world. Therefore, there are a lot of studies being conducted aiming to find technical solutions in order to improve the energy efficiency of existing, modernized, and also new buildings. However, there are obligatory solutions and requirements, which must be implemented during designing stage of the building envelope and its heating/cooling system. They are gathered in the national regulations. The paper describes the process of raising the energy standard of buildings between 1974–2021 in Poland. Therefore, the objective of this study is to show energy savings, which can be generated by modernization of thermal insulation of partitions of existing buildings and by the use of different ways of heat supply. The calculations are made on the selected multi-family buildings located in Poland, with the assumption of a 15 years payback time. It is shown that it is not possible to cover the costs of the modernization works by the projected savings with the compliance to the assumption of 15 years payback time.
In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.
Skeleton castings macrostructure can be shaped in many ways, by choosing an appropriate material of cores and manufacturing technologies. Important factor, which puts foundry techniques over the other technologies of periodic cellular materials, is ability to adjust mechanical properties by changing the microstructure of an alloy from which the casting is made. The influence on the microstructure of the skeleton casting can be implemented by choosing the thermal properties, mainly thermal conductivity factor, of mould and core materials. Macro- and microstructure of skeleton castings with octahedron elementary cells was presented in this paper. The analysis concerns the differences in morphology of eutectic silicone depending on the location of measurements cross sections areas. The use of thermo-insulating material with appropriate properties assures correct fill of mould cavity and homogeneous microstructure on whole volume of skeleton casting. The selection of technological parameters of the casting process if very important as well.