Aesthetic Costs of Spatial Chaos. The most characteristic process of settlement’s development in Poland after 1989, is chaotic dispersion of the buildings, usually around cities, but also along the routes, tourist sites and agricultural areas. The result of this pressure is the fragmentation and the increasing isolation of the landscape ecological systems. These processes have also consequences in the degradation of aesthetic values of the landscape. This report shows the consequences of these processes and condemns the most important tasks that should be taken to repair the quality of the landscape. It is estimated that over 60% of the Polish population lives in the conflict countryside, undergoing pressure of spatial disorder, with reduced or degraded of compositional and aesthetic values. The disintegration of the landscape style and the place identity has also appeared in this areas. In the cities grows the visual aggression of advertising billboards. These phenomena are increasingly negatively assessed by the society. Improvement of spatial order and landscape aesthetics requires fundamental changes in the system of spatial planning, transfer of modern knowledge about the landscape systems to local governments and spatial planning staff, as well as a long-term, consistent work of the society.It is necessary to establish a new way of thinking and learning about the landscape systems. The development and dissemination of methods and techniques of GIS, opens up a new possibilities for diagnosing the physiognomy of the landscape. A methods of assessing the physiognomic structure of landscape as well as methods of design the composition of landscape interiors and scenic panoramas are developed. Since 2015, the landscape audit procedure is implemented. The National Landscape Policy, as well as a common landscape education should be developed, conducted in parallel to the already well-developed environmental policy and education.
Anatomy of the vascular system of the leg was studied using classical anatomical dissection methods. Based also on literature we have reviewed the current knowledge on the vascularization of the lower leg and its embryological background with special respect toward the posterior tibial artery and its branches.