The porous structure of cylindrical and ring-shaped char material was developed by partial steam gasification. Micropore and mesopore structures of active carbons with various forms of burn-off were evaluated by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. Parameters of the Dubinin- Radushkevich equation were calculated as well as the micropore size distribution by the Horvath- Kawazoe method. The results of textural investigations showed that more uniform micropore structure and better mechanical properties were found for ring-shaped active carbons.
Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were studied. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution mechanism in a spouted bed. Analyses included density, mercury porosimetry and adsorption. The remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by adsorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, heavy metals) through its bed. The differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.
The processing of cartographic data demands human involvement. Up-to-date algorithms try to automate a part of this process. The goal is to obtain a digital model, or additional information about shape and topology of input geometric objects. A topological skeleton is one of the most important tools in the branch of science called shape analysis. It represents topological and geometrical characteristics of input data. Its plot depends on using algorithms such as medial axis, skeletonization, erosion, thinning, area collapse and many others. Area collapse, also known as dimension change, replaces input data with lower-dimensional geometric objects like, for example, a polygon with a polygonal chain, a line segment with a point. The goal of this paper is to introduce a new algorithm for the automatic calculation of polygonal chains representing a 2D polygon. The output is entirely contained within the area of the input polygon, and it has a linear plot without branches. The computational process is automatic and repeatable. The requirements of input data are discussed. The author analyzes results based on the method of computing ends of output polygonal chains. Additional methods to improve results are explored. The algorithm was tested on real-world cartographic data received from BDOT/GESUT databases, and on point clouds from laser scanning. An implementation for computing hatching of embankment is described.
Experiments on a confined fluidized bed system with various shapes of particles have been presented in the paper. Its influence on hydrodynamic properties in the whole range of gas velocity has been analysed. Relations allowing calculation of the Richardson-Zaki-type equation coefficients, including description of inter-particle void and gas pressure drop in such systems have been determined. Necessary condition for confined fluidization of non-spherical coarse particles has also been determined.
The low-frequency optical-signal phase noise induced by mechanical vibration of the base occurs in field-deployed fibers. Typical telecommunication data transfer is insensitive to this type of noise but the phenomenon may influence links dedicated to precise Time and Frequency (T&F) fiber-optic transfer that exploit the idea of stabilization of phase or propagation delay of the link. To measure effectiveness of suppression of acoustic noise in such a link, a dedicated measurement setup is necessary. The setup should enable to introduce a low-frequency phase corruption to the optical signal in a controllable way. In the paper, a concept of a setup in which the mechanically induced acoustic-band optical signal phase corruption is described and its own features and measured parameters are presented. Next, the experimental measurement results of the T&F transfer TFTS-2 system’s immunity as a function of the fibre-optic length vs. the acoustic-band noise are presented. Then, the dependency of the system immunity on the location of a noise source along the link is also pointed out.
The aim of the paper was to study the epizootic situation of babesiosis in the cattle population in eastern Poland and possibly to determine what species of protozoa infects Polish cattle. Blood samples for molecular analysis (real time PCR) were collected from 192 dairy cows from various farms located in eastern Poland. The infection was detected in 10.4% of the samples. All animals were infected with Babesia occultans which sequence of the 18S RNA gene fragment showed a 93.1%, homology with the sequence of B. occultans EU 376017. This is the first report about the detection of B. occultans DNA in asymptomatic cattle in eastern Poland.