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Abstract

The paper presents a novel method for the 3D shaping of different materials using a high-pressure abrasive water jet and a flat target image. For steering the process of movement of the jet, a principle similar to raster image way of record and readout was used. However, respective colors of pixels in such a bitmap are connected with adequate jet feed rate that causes erosion of material with adequate depth. Thanks to that innovation, one can observe spatial imaging of the object. Theoretical basis as well as spatial model of material shaping and experimental stand including steering program are presented in the paper. There are also presented methodic and some experimental erosion results, as well as practical example of object's bas-relief made of metal.
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Abstract

Transport and Space in Socio-Economic Life. This paper deals with key issues arising when transport is confronted with chaotic socio-economic environments. Nowadays especially urbanised areas are facing some crucial issues concerning urban planning under conditions of spatial chaos. Transport, having an important role in connecting the space of social and economic life, is a mean to reduce spatial chaos but is also subjected to the impacts chaotic socio-economic forces have. Within this research the interrelation between transport and disordered environment in which transport has to operate is addressed in regard to: transport infrastructure investment planning, traffic congestion management, transport accessibility, accidents and transport safety and impact of transport on the environment. It is the expected role of transport system to reduce chaos, especially in urban areas. But to what degree transport is actually fulfilling this task? In fact in many places badly organized transport might add to the problem instead of solving it. The effect the chaotic spatial organisation has on transport accessibility influences daily economic and social activity of people. Specifically there are numerous cost drivers activated by chaotic transport development resulting mainly in higher costs of moving people and goods, negative impact on value of time in transport processes, direct costs involved like more intensive fuel and material consumption or heightened depreciation of vehicles. Transport could be also perceived as a source of many significant external effects for society and environment, which entails valid environmental costs. The list of transport external effects is relatively long. This is due to the fact that transport is also one of the most important sectors of the modern industrialized economy and modern society. Poorly planned transport system adds to the already chaotic socio-economic setup. This is especially visible in cities where different layers of chaos can interfere and create dangerous synergies. Due to the lack of adequate space management, and this is the case in the discussed spatial chaos, environmental and social externalities are growing, which leads to higher social costs, which every citizen pays for in the final bill. On the other hand well planned transport system should help to curb chaotic socio-economic environment. Thus the key problem analysed in this paper is whether and how transport system could be an ordering force planned and enforced in effective way in order to reduce chaos created by other activities or rather an additional negative effect within the whole spectrum of chaos drivers.
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