The five-layer Aurivillius type structures with the general chemical formula Bi5Fe2-xMnxTi3O18, where x = 0, 0.6, 1.2 have been synthesized and tested. The SEM studies showed a significant increase in grain size in the manganese-modified Aurivillius type ceramic material (for x = 1.2). The increase in the amount of manganese ions (Mn3+) affects the decrease in the temperature at which the relaxation processes take place. Namely from 525 K (1 kHz) and 725 K (1 MHz) for BFT sample (x = 0) to 355 K (1 kHz) and 565 K (1 MHz) for BFM12T sample (x = 1.2). Using the Arrhenius’s law and the Vogel-Fulcher’s relationship the activation energy (Ea) and the relaxation time have been calculated. The value of Ea increases with the increase of the Mn amount from 0.737 eV (for x = 0) to 0.915 eV (for x = 1.2).
Multiferroic composites are very promising materials because of their applicability because the magnetoelectric effect occurs in them. The subject of the study were two multiferroic ceramic composites: leaded obtained from powder of the composition PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and ferrite powder of the composition Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4 and unleaded which was obtained from the powder of the composition BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and the same ferrite powder Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4. For the both multiferroic materials the following studies were conducted: SEM, BSE, EDS, XRD and the temperature dependence of dielectric constant ε(T). Using the previously developed method of calculating the magnetoelectric coupling factor (g), based on dielectric measurements, the magnitude of the magnetoelectric effect in the multiferroic composites was determined.
We present the results of investigations of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) ceramic samples obtained using two-step synthesis (i.e. columbite method). For obtained samples complex investigations of microstructure, magnetic and electrophysical properties have been performed at low and at high temperatures. Microstructure is characterized by small grains with high homogeneity and high density (low porosity). Impedance of samples and the phase shift angle have been measured using LCR Meter. Next the AC electric conductivity, dielectric permittivity and loss tangent have been calculated. AC conductivity at frequency 3 Hz was measured in similar way using Quantum Design PPMS System in magnetic fields 1000 Oe and 10000 Oe. At temperature range 240K-260K the anomalies of conductivity are observed. These anomalies depend on measuring cycle (heating, cooling) and magnetic field.
The discovery of (BaxCa1-x)(ZryTi1-x)O3 lead-free ceramics drawn a lot of attention to those novel materials because of their excellent piezoelectric properties. However, quite a little attention has been paid to other features of the material. This article reports a wide range of research, including composition, structure and microstructure, dielectric response and impedance spectroscopy in order to systematize and expand knowledge about this peculiar ceramics and strontium doping effect on its properties. In order to test that influence a series of samples with various strontium concentration, precisely the admixtures of 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 mol% were prepared, as well as basic ceramics to compare obtained results.
In the work five ceramic compounds based on the (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 (KNLN) material modified with oxides: Cr2O3, ZnO, Sb2O3 or Fe2O3 (in an amount of 0.5 mol.%) were obtained. The KNLN-type composition powder was prepared by solid phase synthesis from a mixture of simple oxides and carbonates, while compacted of the ceramic samples was conducted by free sintering methods. In the work the effect of the used admixture on the electrophysical properties of the KNLN ceramics was presented. The XRD, EDS tests, the SEM measurements of the morphology ceramic samples, dielectric properties and DC electric conductivity were conducted. The research showed that the used admixtures introduced into the base of KNLN-type composition improve the microstructure of the ceramic samples and improve their sinterability. In the case of the dielectric measurements, it was observed a decrease in the maximum dielectric permittivity at the TC for dopred KNLN-type samples. The addition of an admixture of chromium, zinc, antimony or iron in an amount of 0.5 mol.% to the base composition (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 practically does not change the phase transition temperature. The diminution in the density value of doped KNLN ceramics was attributed to the alkali elements volatilization.