The aim of this paper is to show that a real order generalization of the dissipative concepts is a useful tool to determine the stability (in the Lyapunov and in the input-output sense) and to design control strategies not only for fractional order non-linear systems, but also for systems composed of integer and fractional order subsystems (mixed-order systems). In particular, the fractional control of integer order system (e.g. PIλ control) can be formalized. The key point is that the gradations of dissipativeness, passivity and positive realness concepts are related among them. Passivating systems is used as a strategy to stabilize them, which is studied in the non-adaptive as well as in the adaptive case.
This paper presents results of evolutionary minimisation of peak-to-peak value of a multi-tone signal. The signal is the sum of multiple tones (channels) with constant amplitudes and frequencies combined with variable phases. An exemplary application is emergency broadcasting using widely used analogue broadcasting techniques: citizens band (CB) or VHF FM commercial broadcasting. The work presented illustrates a relatively simple problem, which, however, is characterised by large combinatorial complexity, so direct (exhaustive) search becomes completely impractical. The process of minimisation is based on genetic algorithm (GA), which proves its usability for given problem. The final result is a significant reduction of peak-to-peak level of given multi-tone signal, demonstrated by three real-life examples.
A sliding mode controller for the photovoltaic pumping system has been proposed in this paper. This system is composed of a photovoltaic generator supplying a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor coupled to a centrifugal pump through a three-phase voltage inverter. The objective of this study is to minimise the number of regulators and apply the sliding mode control by exploiting the specification of the field oriented control scheme (FOC). The first regulator is used to force the photovoltaic generator to operate at the maximum power point, while the second is used to provide the field oriented control to improve the system performance.The whole system is analysed and its mathematical model is done. Matlab is used to validate the performance and robustness of the proposed control strategy.
Two methods for calculating transport parameters in semiconductor superlattices by applying Green’s functions are compared in the paper. For one of the methods, the Wannier functions method, where computations in the complex space and Wannier functions base are required, the Hamiltonian matrix is small in size and its elements depend solely on the energy. For the real space method, as it operates in the floating point domain and uses the Hamiltonian containing the elements dependent both on energy and position, the Hamiltonian matrix is larger in size. The size makes the method computationally challenging. To find the consequences of choosing one of the methods, a direct comparison between the computations, obtained for both methods with the same input parameters, was undertaken. The differences between the results are shown and explained. Selected simulations allowed us to discuss advantages and disadvantages of both methods. The calculations include transport parameters such as the density of states and the occupation functions, with regard to scattering processes where the self-consistent Born approximation was used, as well as the spatial distribution of electron concentration for two superlattices structures. The numerical results are obtained within the non-equilibrium Green’s functions formalism by solving the Dyson and the Keldysh equations.
The paper presents an induction generator connected to the power grid using the AC/DC/AC converter and LCL coupling filter. In the converter, both from the generator and the power grid side, three-level inverters were used. The algorithm realizing pulse width modulation (PWM) in inverters has been simplified to the maximum. Control of the induction generator was based on the indirect field oriented control (IFOC) method. At the same time, voltage control has been used for this solution. The MPPT algorithm has been extended to the variable pitch range of the wind turbine blades. The active voltage balancing circuit has been used in the inverter DC voltage circuit. Synchronization of control from the power grid side is ensured by the use of a PLL loop with the system of preliminary suppression of undesired harmonics (CDSC).
In the complex RLC network, apart from the currents flows arising from the normal laws of Kirchhoff, other distributions of current, resulting from certain optimization criteria, may also be received. This paper is the development of research on distribution that meets the condition of the minimum energy losses within the network called energy-optimal distribution. Optimal distribution is not reachable itself, but in order to trigger it off, it is necessary to introduce the control system in current-dependent voltage sources vector, entered into a mesh set of a complex RLC network. For energy-optimal controlling, to obtain the control operator, the inversion of R(s) operator is required. It is the matrix operator and the dispersive operator (it depends on frequency). Inversion of such operators is inconvenient because it is algorithmically complicated. To avoid this the operator R(s) is replaced by the R’ operator which is a matrix, but non-dispersive one (it does not depend on s). This type of control is called the suboptimal control. Therefore, it is important to make appropriate selection of the R’ operator and hence the suboptimal control. This article shows how to implement such control through the use of matrix operators of multiple differentiation or integration. The key aspect is the distribution of a single rational function H(s) in a series of ‘s’ or ‘s⁻¹’. The paper presents a new way of developing a given, stable rational transmittance with real coefficients in power series of ‘s/s⁻¹՚. The formulas to determine values of series coefficients (with ‘s/s⁻¹’) have been shown and the conditions for convergence of differential/integral operators given as series of ‘s/s⁻¹’ have been defined.
In this study, the concepts of simultaneous user association and resource allocation in non-orthogonal multiple access systems have been investigated. Subscribers are randomly distributed in them. In the paper, a novel cooperative energy harvesting model is introduced so that user equipment near to the base stations acts as relay for further subscribers. In order to consider the local limitations of alternative energy resources, it was assumed that alternative energy would be shared among the base stations by means of the dynamic grid network. In this architecture, non-orthogonal resource allocation and user association frameworks should be reconfigured because conventional schemes use orthogonal multiple access. Hence, this paper suggests a novel approach to joint optimum cooperative power allocation and user association techniques to achieve a maximum degree of energy efficiency for the whole system in which the quality of experience parameters are assumed to be bounded during multi-cell multicast sessions. The model was also modified to develop joint multi-layered resource control and user association that can distinguish the service pattern in cooperative energy heterogeneous systems with non-orthogonal multiple access to obtain more resource optimality than in the current approaches. The effectiveness of the suggested approach is confirmed by numerical results. Also, the results reveal that non-orthogonal multiple access can provide greater energy efficiency than the conventional orthogonal multiple access approaches such as e.g. the MAX-SINR scheme.
The aeronautical industry is a sector constantly looking for new materials and equipment because of its tendency to expand quickly. The Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is used frequently in the aeronautic, aerospace, automobile, chemical and medical industry because it presents high strength combined with low density (approximately 4.5 g/cm3), good creep resistance (up to 550°C), excellent corrosion resistance, high flexibility, good fatigue and biocompatibility. As a result of these properties, this titanium alloy is considered an excellent material for manufacturing structural parts in the aircraft industry for modern aeronautic structures, especially for airframes and aero-engines. But its use is also problematic because the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy manifests hydrogen embrittlement, by means of hydrides precipitation in the metal. The Ti6Al4V alloy becomes brittle and fractures because of hydrogen diffusion into metal and because titanium hydrides appear and create pressure from within the metal, thus generating corrosion. Because of titanium hydrides, the titanium alloy suffers from reduced ductility, tensile strength and toughness, which can result in fractures of aeronautical parts. This poses a very serious problem for aircrafts. In this paper, rapid hydrogen embrittlement is presented along with XRD, SEM and TEM analysis. Its goal is to detect the presence of titanium hydrides and to spot the initial cracks in the metallic material.
Results of the ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of silicon crystals are presented by means of analysis of the velocity autocorrelation function and determination of mean phonon relaxation time. The mean phonon relaxation time is crucial for prediction of the phonon-associated coefficient of thermal conductivity of materials. A clear correlation between the velocity autocorrelation function relaxation time and the coefficient of thermal diffusivity has been found. The analysis of the results obtained has indicated a decrease of the velocity autocorrelation function relaxation time t with increase of temperature. The method proposed may be used to estimate the coefficient of ther-mal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the materials based on silicon and of other wide-bandgap semiconductors. The correlation between kinetic energy fluctuations and relaxation time of the velocity autocorrelation function has been calculated with the relatively high coefficient of determination R2 = 0.9396. The correlation obtained and the corresponding approach substantiate the use of kinetic energy fluctuations for the calculation of values related to heat conductivity in silicon-based semiconductors (coefficients of thermal conductivity and diffusivity).
The paper presents local dynamic approach to integration of an ensemble of predictors. The classical fusing of many predictor results takes into account all units and takes the weighted average of the results of all units forming the ensemble. This paper proposes different approach. The prediction of time series for the next day is done here by only one member of an ensemble, which was the best in the learning stage for the input vector, closest to the input data actually applied. Thanks to such arrangement we avoid the situation in which the worst unit reduces the accuracy of the whole ensemble. This way we obtain an increased level of statistical forecasting accuracy, since each task is performed by the best suited predictor. Moreover, such arrangement of integration allows for using units of very different quality without decreasing the quality of final prediction. The numerical experiments performed for forecasting the next input, the average PM10 pollution and forecasting the 24-element vector of hourly load of the power system have confirmed the superiority of the presented approach. All quality measures of forecast have been significantly improved.
Recently, business protocol discovery has taken more attention in the field of web services. This activity permits a better description of the web service by giving information about its dynamics. The latter is not supported by theWSDL language which concerns only the static part. The problem is that the only information available to construct the dynamic part is the set of log files saving the runtime interaction of the web service with its clients. In this paper, a new approach based on the Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) is proposed to discover the business protocol of web services. The DWT allows reducing the problem space while preserving essential information. It also overcomes the problem of noise in the log files. The proposed approach has been validated using artificially-generated log files.
This paper presents simulations of a three-dimensional model of the bone remodelling process. The model consists of a set of variable order partial differential equations, in which the varying order depends on the presence of tumour cells. The simulations are of a two-dimensional bone, to make visualisation simpler. They show that this model corresponds to the known evolution of bone remodelling, and is simpler than integer order models found in the literature.
The paper presents the method of assessment of learning outcomes acquirement by students. The analysis is based on the results of the final matriculation exam in mathematics. For crisp and both types of fuzzy relations, cut scores (passing scores) can be defined along with the method of preparing rankings of students. The advantage of applying type 2 fuzzy relations is the lack of the necessity for experts to agree to one level (one number) of verification of learning outcomes by items created for the examination. Based on the results of the exam and experts’ knowledge, the decision support system for calculating the levels of learning outcomes acquirement, making decisions about passing the examination and preparing rankings of students, can be developed. Additionally, the rank reversal phenomenon does not burden the proposed method.
In this study, we propose a novel keyed hash algorithm based on a Boolean function and chaotic attractor. The hash algorithm called BentSign is based on two Signature attractors and XOR function and a bent Boolean function. The provided theoretical and experimental results confirm that the novel scheme can generate output hashes with a good level of security, collision resistance, and protection against most common attacks.
The main objective of this work was to present a successful stabilization action of a building structure in an active landslide. Firstly, history of the case and a FEM simulation explaining ensuing situation are presented. Then different structural measures to stabilize the whole system are discussed. The structural solution of the problem (pile system reaching solid rocky zone) is presented in more detailed way. The estimation of forces acting on the structure, caused by an unstable soil mass, being crucial for the design of stabilizing structure is described.
In a reality of global competition, companies have to minimize production costs and increase productivity in order to boost com-petitiveness. Facility layout design is one of the most important and frequently used efficiency improvement methods for reducing operational costs in a significant manner. Facility layout design deals with optimum location of facilities (workstation, machine, etc.) on the shop floor and optimum material flow between these objects. In this article, the objectives and procedure of layout design along with the calculation method for layout optimization are all introduced. The study is practice-oriented because the described case study shows how the layout of an assembly plant can be modified to form an ideal re-layout. The research is novel and innovative because the facility layout design and 4 lean methods (takt-time design, line balance, cellular design and one-piece flow) are all combined in order to improve efficiency more significantly, reduce costs and improve more key performance indicators. From the case study it can be concluded that the layout redesign and lean methods resulted in significant reduction of the following seven indicators: amount of total workflow, material handling cost, total travel distance of goods, space used for assembly, number of workers, labor cost of workers and the number of Kanban stops.
This paper presents mechanical fault detection in squirrel cage induction motors (SCIMs) by means of two recent techniques. More precisely, we have analyzed the rolling element bearing (REB) faults in SCIM. Rolling element bearing faults constitute a major problem among different faults which cause catastrophic damage to rotating machinery. Thus early detection of REB faults in SCIMs is of crucial importance. Vibration analysis is among the key concepts for mechanical vibrations of rotating electrical machines. Today, there is massive competition between researchers in the diagnosis field. They all have as their aim to replace the vibration analysis technique. Among them, stator current analysis has become one of the most important subjects in the fault detection field. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has become popular for detection and localization of numerous faults. It is generally based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the stator current signal. We have detailed the analysis by means of MCSA-FFT, which is based on the stator current spectrum. Another goal in this work is the use of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique in order to detect REB faults. In addition, a new indicator based on the MCSA-DWT technique has been developed in this study. This new indicator has the advantage of expressing itself in the quantity and quality form. The acquisition data are presented and a comparative study is carried out between these recent techniques in order to ensure a final decision. The proposed subject is examined experimentally using a 3 kW squirrel cage induction motor test bed.
The article presents the analysis of the simulation test results for three variants of the power electronics used as interface between the power network and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with the following parameters: power of 250 kW, current of 500 A DC and voltage of 500 V DC. Three interface topologies were analyzed: two-level AC-DC and DC-DC converters; three-level systems and mixed systems combining a three-level active rectifier and a two-level DC-DC converter. The following criteria were considered: input and output current and voltage distortions, determined as THDi and THDu, power losses in power electronics components; cost of the semiconductor components for each topology and total cost of the interface. Results of the analysis showed that for high-power low-voltage and high-current power electronics systems, the most advantageous solution from a technical and economical perspective is a two-level interface configuration in relation to both AC-DC and DC-DC converters.
The practical and asymptotic stabilities of delayed fractional discrete-time linear systems described by the model without a time shift in the difference are addressed. The D-decomposition approach is used for stability analysis. New necessary and sufficient stability conditions are established. The conditions in terms of the location of eigenvalues of the system matrix in the complex plane are given.
This paper proposes a novel method for digital image watermarking, in which watermarks are embedded in the domain of fast para-metric transforms based on known spread spectrum approaches. Fast parametric transforms have the ability to adapt the forms of base vectors, which enables automatic selection of the domain of watermarking in relation to the pair: a marked image – a watermarking attack. The process of adapting the forms of fast parametric transforms is carried out with aid of the classical genetic algorithm with the fitting function based on the known measure of separability of watermarks. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified experimentally on the basis of the images of two classes, i.e. natural images and technical diagrams. The results taking into account both the efficiency of watermark embedding and the generated distortions in the marked images are summarized in tables and accompanied by an appropriate commentary.
The chaotic phenomena of coronary artery systems are hazardous to health and may induce illness development. From the perspective of engineering, the potential harm can be eliminated by synchronizing chaotic coronary artery systems with a normal one. This paper investigates the chaos synchronization problem in light of the methodology of sliding mode control (SMC). Firstly, the nonlinear dynamics of coronary artery systems are presented. Since the coronary artery systems suffer from uncertainties, the technique of derivative-integral terminal SMC is employed to achieve the chaos synchronization task. The stability of such a control system is proven in the sense of Lyapunov. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, some simulation results are illustrated in comparison with a benchmark.
The genesis of both coherent structures and reactive flow control strategies is explored. Futuristic control systems that utilize mi-crosensors and microactuators together with artificial intelligence to target specific coherent structures in a transitional or turbulent flow are considered. Of possible interest to the readers of this journal is the concept of smart wings, to be briefly discussed early in the article.
Affective computing studies and develops systems capable of detecting humans affects. The search for universal well-performing features for speech-based emotion recognition is ongoing. In this paper, a small set of features with support vector machines as the classifier is evaluated on Surrey Audio-Visual Expressed Emotion database, Berlin Database of Emotional Speech, Polish Emotional Speech database and Serbian emotional speech database. It is shown that a set of 87 features can offer results on-par with state-of-the-art, yielding 80.21, 88.6, 75.42 and 93.41% average emotion recognition rate, respectively. In addition, an experiment is conducted to explore the significance of gender in emotion recognition using random forests. Two models, trained on the first and second database, respectively, and four speakers were used to determine the effects. It is seen that the feature set used in this work performs well for both male and female speakers, yielding approximately 27% average emotion recognition in both models. In addition, the emotions for female speakers were recognized 18% of the time in the first model and 29% in the second. A similar effect is seen with male speakers: the first model yields 36%, the second 28% a verage emotion recognition rate. This illustrates the relationship between the constitution of training data and emotion recognition accuracy.
In the present paper, we investigate a multi-server Erlang queueing system with heterogeneous servers, non-homogeneous customers and limited memory space. The arriving customers appear according to a stationary Poisson process and are additionally characterized by some random volume. The service time of the customer depends on his volume and the joint distribution function of the customer volume and his service time can be different for different servers. The total customers volume is limited by some constant value. For the analyzed model, steady-state distribution of number of customers present in the system and loss probability are calculated. An analysis of some special cases and some numerical examples are attached as well.