The problem of regional diversity is the subject of a broad scientific discourse. The dynamics of territory development is connected with many factors. Among them, the so-called spaces for development opportunities of individual units and resiliance issues for external factors of regions. The author discusses the diversity of individuals from the point of view of these two factors. It indicates future directions of regional research, which will show why regions at the start with potentially the same structure are developing completely differently and why in most cases resistance is associated with innovation and in the case of Polish regions it is not.
The aim of the paper is to measure and forecast concentration of regional development potential on a regional basis. The study covered 14 GUS features, which measure the development potential. The forecast, nominal values and processes’ dynamics were calculated for data from 2010 to 2020, using author made method. The study reveals that key factors determining the diversification of the distribution of the potential include the relation of large agglomerations to their regional surroundings. Therefore, we are dealing with growth poles with different impact levels. Since 2010, the process of concentrating potential in Poland has taken different directions. In poorly developed regions, we observe constant distribution values. Most regions, especially those with medium and high levels of economic development, are characterized by a dynamic increase in the level of concentration 5% to 6% annually. This means that the growth poles «move away» from their surroundings and strengthen their position. Simultaneously, they slightly reduce the distance to the strongest developed region in Poland (Mazowsze). By 2020, these trends will remain unchanged, however regions with a moderately low level of development will observe the fastest growth.
The subject of research was urban and urban-rural communes in the peripheral areas of voivodships, that is outside the functional areas of their capitals and outside the Silesian agglomerations. The aim of the research was to: (1) recognize the most economically developed entities in the studied areas, (2) recognize how development factors and their combinations that can create territorial capital are perceived and used in municipal strategies. The methods included: (1) analysis of indicators (2) analysis of texts of 10 strategies of entities with a high level of development. It was found, that there was deficiency of specific factors of development and recognition of their combination as well as the lack of using them to create a competitive advantage.
There are more and more new development challenges emerging in Polish cities and regions recently. Because of those challenges we can observe an increase of the role of cities and associated environments. The concept of cities’ impact on the environment is a result of many processes, such as: suburbanization, reurbanization, increasing population mobility, development of transport systems, innovation, or entrepreneurship. A city is a complex entity, it is a subject to dynamic changes, to understand which we need interdisciplinary knowledge or the combination of many different approaches along with an attempt to draw many conclusions. We can find numerous theoretical examples describing city-regional environment relations in the literature. In general, these models explain the relationship between economically strong cities (metropolis) and the regions. However, there is not much literature and research explaining the nature and strength of relationships with medium-sized cities. There are also very few ideas for developing the potential of medium-sized cities in polish national policy. The aim of the article is to present disproportions in the development of medium-sized cities in voivodships of Eastern Poland in 2010-2017. The author will also present the possibility of using a synthetic measure to assess and recognize the spatial diversity of medium-sized cities development.
The aim of the article is to analyse the spread and diffusion of socio-economic development in Poland in 2004-2016, while considering spatial aspects. Using the linear ordering method in the non-pattern version, a synthetic development measure for all municipalities in Poland was built based on a set of 77 features illustrating various socio-economic aspects, reduced to 25 features. For the measure constructed in this way, the convergence of the beta and sigma type has been examined, divided into 3 groups of municipalities (rural, urban and urban-rural), as well as in regional division. Using the methods of spatial econometrics, the occurrence of spatial effects was examined, in particular the attention was paid to the relationship between the processes of spreading development and spatial forms of diffusion of development. The analysis also allowed to determine the strength of local impacts of spatial connections between individual municipalities.
In order to meet global challenges, cities must be governed efficiently, be compact, and as a result more sustainable, socially coherent, strong and competitive at economic level. Initiatives taken in favour of urban mobility may help in shaping of the global society, putting the main focus on the quality of life, citizens› needs and the principle of sustainable development. These actions aim at focusing citizens› attention on the need to improve air quality, decrease congestion in city’s main streets, but most of all to invest in your own health and physical condition, which increases the level of citizens’ life conditions, and in turn provides the city with considerable economic benefits. However, is it quite a challenge to ensure a sustainable urban mobility pattern which requires a high level of stakeholders’ participation and establishing a detailed complex planning process. The aim of the paper is to present, based on the available literature and data sources and also survey research results, shaping life quality in the aspect of mobility in the context of current megatrends, taking as a case study the CIVITAS DYN@MO project implementation in the city of Gdynia.
JESSICA initiative as a financial engineering instrument was introduced to enhance and accelerate investments in disadvantaged urban areas. The novel aspect of JESSICA is that this instrument should not only support and promote sustainable urban development but also provide incentives that lower risk capital investments and consequently allow to overcome existing market failures. Thus, the paper aims to identify whether JESSICA projects have contributed to generating positive market effects, as well as to indicate the factors that were most responsible for the occurrence of these phenomena. The results show that 75% out of all projects generated positive market effects in form of new jobs, services or products. The generation of revenues by particular project was the most influential factor determining the capacity of a given project to create positive markets effects.
Cities are changing before our eyes. Civilization trends should be accompanied by the appropriate management styles of local development. The crisis of civil policy and the power of representation undermines the essence of the current model of democracy and the effectiveness of local policy. Therefore, it evolves towards governance. The influence of civic activity is mostly visible at the local level. Its importance is multidimensional and it shapes the social, economic and environmental conditions of urban life. The article guides the reader through various meanders of research and public debate on engaging inhabitants in local policy. Its aim is to indicate the scope of resident’s influence on the current policy of Polish cities, in particular with regard to the investment policy. The paper is based on the extensive literature studies and the primary research carried out in all of the cities in Silesia voidvoship.
Increasing environmental awareness, perceived climate change and easier access to information have contributed to changing the perception of the environment and its reserves. Unfortunately, it happens that still misunderstood economic development and urbanization contribute to inefficient management of the city’s resources, such as space. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the impact of unused urban space for widely understood city attractiveness. The research was conducted on the example of Katowice city. The article presents the results of identification of unused urban spaces, made based on information contained in the study of spatial development conditions and directions, and available orthophotomaps and topographic maps using GIS type software. The theoretical aspects connected with the influence of unused areas on the attractiveness of the city and the results of research carried out by the Otodom service were used for the analysis.
Cities play a special role in the process of sustainable development of the country. The city management plays a fundamental role in this challenge. The mayor should become a manager and manage the city based on a strategic marketing management model. Thanks to this, it can optimally use available financial instruments that give the opportunity to achieve strategic development goals of the city.
The smart city concept is constantly evolving. More and researchers in Poland and also in the whole world deal with this issue. In practice, it is noted that in cities around the world you can find more and more implemented projects referred as smart, in particular in Barcelona, Vienna and Copenhagen and others. According to the classical definition, smart city means introducing solutions based on the latest information technologies to urban spaces in order to improve the quality of life of city residents. Smart city is a city concept in which solutions can solve the most important problems related to the functioning of cities, such as improvements in public transport and goods in cities, counteracting climate change through the use of energy-saving solutions of city lighting, social inclusion (access city) and others. The concept of smart city is based on IT solutions that are constantly modernized and adapted to specific needs of individual cities. By using real-time access to information, they help make more efficient decisions for city users. However, recent approaches highlight the relationship between modern network technologies and the urban community. One can notice the focus of the researchers on the relational approach, which means combining the smart city concept with the participation of residents in the city management process, and in particular making choices and implementing smart projects. In this sense, the smart city idea defines the way of managing a city in which relations between the self-government, IT providers and science as well as the inhabitants of the city are particularly important. Responding to the needs of residents is particularly important as counteracting the tendency to focus smart products and services in richer places and create socalled an innovation hub with the simultaneous periphery of the remaining districts. Criticism of the smart city concept focuses on the problem of the social polarization of cities, in which the technological revolution contributes more to the increase of socio-economic disparities rather than their decreasing. The aim of the article is to answer the question whether the implementation of the smart city concept polarizes the urban community and does it allow the inclusive development of cities?
The smart city concept is becoming more and more popular as a direction for further development of cities in the European Union. The main goal of the article is to determine the relationship between the concept of a smart city and the competitiveness of a modern city, understood as a standard of living of city’s inhabitants. The research method is a case study, based on a selected example of the city of Mannheim in Germany. The author assumes that the results of the research, in addition to the contribution to the still developing knowledge on smart cities, will be able to fulfill the practical task – support the development and increase of competitiveness of contemporary Polish cities.
Post-industrial areas are an area of concentration, penetration and shaping the economic, social and environmental zone. The strategic goal of transforming post-industrial areas should be to obtain a new, dynamic and favorable state of equilibrium for a given area, as well as its surroundings after cessation of operations. The purpose of the article is to indicate the possibility of adaptation of post-industrial areas, especially after exploitation of the mineral, to perform new functions. The direction and the purpose of the recultivation and planning actions to a large extent may be influenced by specific social and economic conditions affecting the competitiveness of each and individually treated fragment of space.
The paper aims at proposing a contemporary typology of factors building attractiveness and competitiveness of cities. The notions of urban attractiveness and urban competitiveness have been covered in literature for many years. As such the authors approached specification of the current factors, in the way they are understood by relevant representatives of researchers and territorial authorities. The A&K [standing for Polish: Atrakcyjność & Konkurencyjność] Model is presented in the paper and a typology is derived upon it.
Presented paper consists of two parts: (1) experiences of spatial policy formulation on EU level and (2) preparation of new EU Territorial Agenda until 2030. In first part were elaborated milestones of previous activities on spatial policy in EU: European Spatial Development Perspective from 1999 and Territorial Agenda approved by member states in Godollo in 2011. Important element of paper was also description of changing background of spatial policy, primarily related to Lisbon Treaty introducing territorial cohesion. In XXI century crucial role was played by three generations of ESPON programme, embracing spatial pattern of European space, but also forecasting future of European territory until 2050. Catalysing role was played by the World Bank and OECD activities. In second part evidence concerning new Territorial Agenda was presented. Issue of spatial patterns of mega-trends implies priorities of new Territorial Agenda. Using territorial potentials and overcoming territorial barriers gives additional impetus to EU development. Problems which should be tackled are: risk of fragmentation, growing interdependencies between places and functional mismatch. For Poland involvement in activities leading to next Territorial Agenda of EU is of key importance.
The paper shows the impact of despatialization on processes of territorial development. The essence of despatialization is the decreasing importance of the spatial factor in the information society, as a result of the use of information and computer technologies, and in particular – the Internet. It creates new challenges for spatial management. Real contact between people and organizations is often replaced with links and information flows, the quality of which is growing and which in many cases eliminate the resistance that spatial distance makes. The multiple effects of this phenomenon modify social relations, at the same time being challenges, but also opportunities to create new tools for managing development policy.