Nanotechnology has been widely applied in agriculture, and understanding of the mechanisms of plant interaction with nanoparticles (NPs) as environmental contaminants is important. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of foliar application of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) NPs on some morpho-physiological and biochemical changes of canola (Brassica napus L.) leaves. Seeds were sown in plastic pots and grown under controlled conditions. Fourteen-day-old seedlings were sprayed with different concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg L-1) at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Growth parameters of the shoot (length, fresh and dry weights) were stimulated by low concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (50 and 100 mg L-1) and repressed by higher concentrations. Similar trends were observed in photosynthetic pigment contents. The results indicated that high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs increased lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents, but reduced the membrane stability index (MSI), ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH). Despite the increase of antioxidant capacity (DPPH) and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoids and flavonols) and osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine (GB) and soluble sugars) at high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs, the growth and photosynthesis were reduced. The defence system activity did not seem to be sufficient to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs showed a phytotoxic potential for canola as an oilseed crop.
Rare and endemic plant species represent important components of plant biodiversity which require protection to ensure their sustainable conservation. Cerastium banaticum (Rochel) Heuff. is such an endemic and rare species from Romania, for which the genetic variability of two natural populations was studied by SSR markers. Shannon’s information index revealed low levels of genetic diversity in both populations (I = 0.296). As the first attempt in a conservation program a reproducible micropropagation protocol was established starting from seeds, followed by multiplication, rooting, and ex vitro acclimatization. Among the various plant growth regulators tested the highest multiplication coefficient was achieved on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (K) and 1 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). On this PGRs concentration a number of 26.6 shoots/individual explant with a mean length of 7.9 cm for new generated shoots was registered. The highest number of roots/individual initiated shoot was 2.6 and it was recorded on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 2-isopentyl-adenine (2iP) and 0.1 mg L-1 NAA. The outdoor acclimatization was successfully performed in a specially designed rocky area in the ‘Alexandru Borza’ Botanical Garden, Cluj-Napoca (Romania).
A brief review of the existing autonomous underwater vehicles, their types, design, movement abilities and missions is presented. It is shown, the shape optimization design and enhancement of their efficiency is the main problem for further development of multipurpose glider technologies. A comparative study of aerodynamic performance of three different shape designs (the airfoil NACA0022 based (I), flattened ellipsoidal (II) and cigar-type (III) bodies of the same volumes) has been carried out. Geometrical modelling, meshing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been carried out with AnSys15.0. The pathlines and wall shear stress distributions have been computed to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each shape. The lift and drag coefficients, aerodynamic quality, power index and pitching moment have been computed. The higher efficiency of the shape I/shape II at higher/lower angles of attack (> 20o and < 20o) has been found. The shape III develops high speeds at the same angles of attack and has higher manoeuvrability at relatively low aerodynamic quality. The comparative analysis of the flow capabilities of studied autonomous undersea vehicles proposes some design improvement for increasing their energy efficiency and flow stability.
The paper presents a simulation model of the hybrid magnetic bearing dedicated to simulations of transient state. The proposed field-circuit model is composed of two components. The first part constitutes a set of ordinary differential equations that describes electrical circuits and mechanics. The second part of the simulation model consists of parameters such as magnetic forces, dynamic inductances and velocity-induced voltages obtained from the 3D finite element analysis. The MATLAB/Simulnik softwarewas used to implement the simulation model with the required control system. The proposed field-circuit model was validated by comparison of time responses with the prototype of the hybrid magnetic bearing.
An attempt is made in the current research to obtain the fundamental buckling torque and the associated buckled shape of an annular plate. The plate is subjected to a torque on its outer edge. An isotropic homogeneous plate is considered. The governing equations of the plate in polar coordinates are established with the aid of the Mindlin plate theory. Deformations and stresses of the plate prior to buckling are determined using the axisymmetric flatness conditions. Small perturbations are then applied to construct the linearised stability equations which govern the onset of buckling. To solve the highly coupled equations in terms of displacements and rotations, periodic auxiliary functions and the generalised differential quadrature method are applied. The coupled linear algebraic equations are a set of homogeneous equations dealing with the buckling state of the plate subjected to a unique torque. Benchmark results are given in tabular presentations for combinations of free, simply-supported, and clamped types of boundary conditions. It is shown that the critical buckling torque and its associated shape highly depend upon the combination of boundary conditions, radius ratio, and the thickness ratio.