The article analyzes the risk factors related to the energy use of alternative fuels from waste. The essence of risk and its impact on economic activity in the area of waste management were discussed. Then, a risk assessment, on the example of waste fractions used for the production of alternative fuel, was carried out. In addition, the benefits for the society and the environment from the processing of alternative fuels for energy purposes, including, among others: reducing the cost of waste disposal, limiting the negative impact on water, soil and air, reducing the amount of waste deposited, acquisition of land; reduction of the greenhouse effect, facilitating the recycling of other fractions, recovery of electricity and heat, and saving conventional energy carriers, were determined. The analysis of risk factors is carried out separately for plants processing waste for alternative fuel production and plants producing energy from this type of fuel. Waste processing plants should pay attention to investment, market (price, interest rate, and currency), business climate, political, and legal risks, as well as weather, seasonal, logistic, technological, and loss of profitability or bankruptcy risks. Similar risks are observed in the case of energy companies, as they operate in the same external environment. Moreover, internal risks may be similar; however, the specific nature of the operation of each enterprise should be taken into account. Energy companies should pay particular attention to the various types of costs that may threaten the stability of operation, especially in the case of regulated energy prices. The risk associated with the inadequate quality of the supplied and stored fuels is important. This risk may disrupt the technological process and reduce the plant’s operational efficiency. Heating plants and combined heat and power plants should also not underestimate the non-catastrophic weather risk, which may lead to a decrease in heat demand and a reduction in business revenues. A comprehensive approach to risk should protect enterprises against possible losses due to various types of threats, including both external and internal threats.
The article presents the results of tests of the application of magnetic fuel activators, which improve the efficiency of metallurgical furnaces and positively affect the ecological aspects of their work. Energy indicators for metallurgical furnaces during operation before and after installation of magnetic fuel activators as well as the results of composition and concentration of emitted pollutants are included in the paper. The magnetic activation of liquid and gaseous fuels modifies their structure. As a result of the activation, the fuel mixture is selectively saturated with oxygen in the zone of free fuel flow. The combustion conditions were close to optimal, which is confirmed by the reduction of pollutants in the exhaust gases. Fuel saving in the combustion process is also a measurable economic effect. The tests included ovens of several types: pusher furnace, one and two chamber furnaces and a furnace with a rotary shaft. Several-month measurement cycles were carried out on each of them. The experiments consisted in the analysis of gas and heat consumption per month in individual furnaces before and after the use of magnetic fuel activators. The effectiveness of using activators was determined on the basis of the results of the tests carried out. As a result of a twelve-month test cycle on the pusher type furnace, a 36% reduction in gas consumption and a 22% reduction in heat consumption were achieved. After a seventeen-month measurement cycle on chamber furnaces, a 35% reduction in gas consumption and 6% in heat consumption were achieved. The tests on furnaces with a rotary shaft lasted fourteen months and showed a reduction in gas consumption by 8%. An improvement in the composition of fumes in the furnace atmosphere was achieved in all units with magnetic activators installed, as well as a reduction in the emission of harmful pollutants into the atmosphere from the installation.
Wood pellets, commonly referred to as biomass fuel, are increasingly used in heating and district heating in the European Union countries, including Poland. Their use in class 5 and/or Ecodesign boilers enables an individual consumer to use energy from renewable sources, reduce the environmental burden by reducing the emission of harmful compounds, and provides a sense of comfort by automating the boiler system. The article presents the current situation in the global wood pellet market, describes the basic quality standards applicable to this fuel during production, and indicates the difficulties in the implementation of programs co-financing the replacement of obsolete coal-fired boilers with automatic class 5 biomass-fired boilers. The research presented in this article is focused on the presence of contaminants in the DIN Plus, EN Plus, and A1 pellets, as well as in non-certified pellets. The analysis has shown that the use of wood pellets containing prohibited substances negatively affects boiler operation and contributes to the formation of slag and the emission of harmful compounds, making the discussed fuel non-ecological.
In literature as well as in the university debate, we can observe the increase of interest regarding converting agricultural residues into energy. Furthermore, the energy and climate policies have encouraged the development of biogas plants for energy production. One of the most significant reasons of this escalation is that this technology may be both convenient and beneficial. The produced biogas is not only supposed to cover the energy demand like heat and electricity, the resulting digestate has the prospect of a beneficial fertilizer and can thereby influence the energy management plans. This technology is widely introduced to countries, which have large income from agriculture. Not only does this reduce the use of industrial fertilizers, but also finds use for agricultural residues. One of the countries of this type is Vietnam, which is the fifth largest exporter of rice in the world. Over 55% of greenhouse gas emission in Vietnam comes from agriculture. Using innovative technologies such as biogas, may decrease this value in near future. It may also contribute to more sustainable agriculture by decreasing traditional fields burning after the harvesting period. The goal of this research paper is to estimate the possible production of biogas from rice straw to cover the energy demand of the rice mill. Four possible scenarios have been considered in this paper, the present situation and where electricity, energy or both were covered by biogas from agricultural residues. An attempt was made to answer the question whether the amount of biogas produced from agricultural residues is enough for both: electricity and energy supply, for the rice mill. If not, how much rice straw must be delivered from other sources, from which rice is not delivered to the rice mill. The base of the assumptions during the estimation of various values were statistics from FAO and other organizations, secondary sources and data from the existing rice mill in Hậu Mỹ Bắc B in Mekong delta in Vietnam.
The development of air transport affects elements of the aviation fuel market. In recent years an increase in both the number of passengers and the number of passenger operations has been observed. This phenomenon also concerns passengers and the number of operations served by Polish airports which translates into more and more fuel consumption in Poland. The authors of the study tried to approximate the characteristics of aviation fuels used in various types of aircrafts. The most important of them, from the perspective of the Polish aviation sector, include Jet. This type of fuel plays a key role in civil aviation. In the article, the enterprises operating in the analyzed sector were also reviewed. The empirical part of the article is devoted, in turn, to the analysis of changes in air passenger transport in Poland and changes in Jet fuel prices on the Polish fuel markets. The conducted research shows that the dynamics of changes in the number of passengers, as well as the number of passenger operations at Polish airports were characterized by an upward trend, and the increase in the number of passengers was driven not only by a larger number of available flights, but also by such factors as: increasing the capacity of aircraft and increasing the fill rate for seats. The authors have also attempted to examine the strength of dependence between the number of passengers deciding to use Polish airports and Jet fuel prices, which in recent years have undergone significant fluctuations. For this purpose, the value of Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was used and the analyzed period covered the years 2011–2017. The data on passenger traffic used in the study came mainly from periodic reports prepared by the Civil Aviation Office (ULC).