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Number of results: 2405
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Abstract

Recent empirical research has provided compelling evidence that the proliferation of intellectual property rights (IP) and the fragmentation of patent rights among different patent holders have created barriers to innovation and impediments to the commercialization of scientific discoveries. Legal and economic scholars have suggested that due to the rising number of patent applications, the limited resources in patent offices around the world and the lack of sufficient time to prior art search, examiners have failed to conduct thorough patent examination processes. Moreover, researchers have linked the growing number of overlapping intellectual property rights to the tragedy of the anticommons and to the concept of patent thickets. Multiple studies have been performed in order to develop measures that could verify the existence of patent thickets and to better understand the social and economic impact of fragmentary patent owners. When it comes to the energy sector, the problem of patent thickets is now even more important. As the technological innovation in this sector increases and the energy-related patenting continues to grow, it has been argued that the issue of patent thickets may have a direct impact on investment decisions and the long-run development of this sector. This paper presents an overview of literature on the definition of a patent thicket and summarizes some of the possible factors causing thickets to arise. Additionally, it discusses the recent developments in patent thicket measures and patent thicket identification methods.
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Keywords borreliosis ticks

Abstract

We talk to Assoc. Prof. Anna Bajer from the Department of Parasitology at the University of Warsaw, about ticks and how they transmit Lyme disease.
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Abstract

Prof. Hanna Bogucka, head of the Department of Wireless Communications at the Poznań University of Technology, discusses unnecessary inhibitions, the usefulness of microphones, and the links between people and technology.
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Abstract

Over the last 20 years, Polish society’s attitude towards people with disabilities has changed for the better. However, we still have not completely rid ourselves of prejudices, fears, and stereotypes.
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Abstract

Asst. Prof. Piotr Osęka from the PAS Institute of Political Studies explains what groups are being depicted as enemies in the eyes of the Poles and what purposes such propaganda serves.
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Keywords women in science

Abstract

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
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Abstract

Prof. Anetta Undas from the Jagiellonian University Medical College discusses the sinister force of diseases, the commandments of scientific editing, and the patriotism of scientists.
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Abstract

Professor Agnieszka Chacińska from the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology talks about her research on mitochondrial proteins and their association with neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders.
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Keywords women in science

Abstract

We talk to Prof. Małgorzata Kossowska from the Institute of Psychology at the Jagiellonian University about whether women are appreciated, the significance of openness and tolerance, and what makes a terrorist.
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Abstract

Could the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth have been rescued in the eighteenth century? If certain social strata had not been so excluded, might the partitions of Poland never have come to pass?
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Abstract

We discuss waste, fuels, and air quality with Prof. Czesława Rosik-Dulewska from the PAS Institute of Environmental Engineering and the Department of Land Protection at the University of Opole.
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Keywords cancer human health

Abstract

We talk to Prof. Bożena Kamińska-Kaczmarek from the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology about treating cancer, obvious and impossible discoveries, and academic courage and strength.
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Abstract

Professor Krystyna Chojnicka from the Department of History of Political and Legal Doctrines, Jagiellonian University, talks about respect for female lawyers, the true role of a Byzantine princess, and how a theatrical performance sparked her interest in Russian legal doctrine.
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Keywords civil society

Abstract

Dr. Artur Kościański from the PAS Institute of Philosophy and Sociology explains how civil society works in Poland and how the Internet contributes to its development.
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Abstract

We talk to Assoc. Prof. Paweł Gancarczyk from the PAS Institute of Art about how early music was perceived at the time when it was being composed, what modern musicologists regard as new discoveries and how our identities are shaped by sound.
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Abstract

We talk to Prof. Magda Konarska from the Centre of New Technologies at the University of Warsaw about the “spliceosome,” the ongoing need for basic research and the importance of diversity in science.
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Abstract

We talk to Prof. Jerzy Jarzębski from the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and the Eastern Europe State University in Przemyśl about Stanisław Lem and the future he foresaw, his cautionary tales and whether he is still an author often misunderstood.
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Keywords feral dogs

Abstract

We talk to Prof. Wiesław Bogdanowicz from the PAS Institute of Zoology about the origins, abilities and intelligence of feral dogs.
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Abstract

Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Although originally defined for Earth, the term is also a perfect description of the aims of the VIPERS team, whose members include Polish astronomers.
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Abstract

Extremes in the natural world, such as extreme weather phenomena, are rather unpleasant for people. In turn, the extremes that permeate society have far-reaching consequences. But where should extremes be encouraged?
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Abstract

We talk to Dr. Andrzej Kruszewicz, director of Warsaw Zoo, about animals being held in “captivity.”
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Keywords parasites

Abstract

What can parasites do? According to Kathleen McAuliffe’s book This is Your Brain on Parasites, they can affect human thinking and behavior, and thus change us into obedient machines.
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Abstract

Sylwia Bedyńska, PhD, from the Institute of General Psychology at the SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, explains how negative stereotypes affect gifted women and their education choices.
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Keywords women in science

Abstract

Prof. Maria Anna Ciemerych- -Litwinienko and Asst. Prof. Edyta Brzóska-Wójtowicz from the Faculty of Biology at the University of Warsaw discuss the position of women in science.
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