The results of the application and evaluation of the r.sun model for calculation of the total solar radiation for the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (SW Spitsbergen) are presented. Linke Turbidity Factor (LTF), which is the obligatory parameter for direct and diffused radiation calculations with the r.sun model, is derived here with the empirical formula and meteoro− logical measurements. Few different approaches for calculation of LTF are presented and tested. The r.sun model results, calculated with these various LTF, are evaluated through comparison with total solar radiation measurements gathered at Polish Polar Station. The r.sun model is found to be in good agreement with the measurements for clear sky condi− tions, with the explained variance (R2) close to 0.9. Overall, the model slightly underesti− mates the measured total radiation. Reasonable results were calculated for the cloudiness condition up to 2 octas, and for these r.sun model can be considered as a reliable and flexible tool providing spatial data on solar radiation for the study area.
After several years of research, the foraminiferal fauna of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) has become themost studied fiord in West Antarctica with respect to foraminifera. As such, it provides actualistic data for better understanding of paleoenvironmental records from this dynamically changing area. Over a few years, the bay was systematically sampled down to 520 m water depth, for multi−chambered and mono− thalamous benthic foraminifera, including soft−walled allogromiids often overlooked in for− mer studies. Altogether, 138 taxa were identified, and three new taxa described. This paper aims to integrate these results, put them into a broader perspective, and supplement them with information that was not presented to date. Most notably, a record of the vertical distribution of Rose Bengal stained foraminifera below the sediment surface and the proportions of soft and robustly−testate forms at different sites are described.
During thirty three expeditions to the Polish Arctowski Antarctic Station signifi− cant influences of human activity upon the environment have been recorded. Introductions of alien species, shifts of bird and seal breeding areas and decreases in both bird and seal populations, are the most obvious effects of human pressure. Though numbers of visits by tourists have increased during this period, impacts from expeditioners appear to be the main cause of changes. In particular, increasing numbers and mobility of summer groups at the station are the likely most influential factors.
Nine samples of basic (dolerite, gabbro) intrusions collected at Bellsund, South Spitsbergen, have been K−Ar dated. Three dates, between 87.8 and 102.9 Ma, obtained from dolerite sills which intrude Carboniferous and Permian deposits in Van Keulenfjorden point to a Cretaceous age of intrusive activity (Diabasodden Suite). The K−Ar dates obtained from dolerite and gabbro which intrude Upper Proterozoic metasedimentary terrane of Chamber− lindalen form two groups: the dates between 97.1 and 178.6 Ma point to a Mesozoic age of the intrusions (Diabasodden Suite); the dates from a tectonized gabbroid (280.9–402.0 Ma) might point to a Late Palaeozoic age of the intrusion. No K−Ar dates which would indicate a Proterozoic age of the basic intrusions were obtained
Genetic variability of two populations of Arctic freshwater crustacean Lepidurus arcticus (Crustacea, Notostraca) occuring in small tundra reservoirs near the Polish Polar Sta− tion in Hornsund (Spitsbergen) was studied. The allozyme polimorphism analysis of 11 en− zyme systems indicates a considerable distinctness and genetically heterogeneous character of the populations of L. arcticus inhabiting freshwater reservoirs of similar hydrological con− ditions situated close to each other (2 km). Our research revealed a complicated and geneti− cally heterogeneous character of the populations. Three hypotheses about genetic structure and type of reproduction were tested: hypothesis M – the free transfer without assigning a clone for particular reservoir and the lack of doublemutations; hypothesis I – separation of in− dividuals between reservoirs and the possibility of doublemutations; hypothesis S – presence of partial sexual reproduction in the population, probably with males. In conclusion participa− tion ofmales in reproduction is probable, despite their presence was not recorded in our study. Males usually occur in low numbers or not every year. The populations' clonal structure as well as the genetic diversity typical of species reproducing sexually was observed. The Hardy−Weinberg genetic equilibrium is maintained as new clonal lines appear due to the ge− netic diversity increasing incidentally as a result of sexual reproduction.
Shallow−marine deposits of the Krabbedalen Formation (Kap Dalton Group) from Kap Brewster, central East Greenland, yielded rich dinoflagellate cyst and pollen− −spore assemblages. Previously, this formation yielded also rich mollusc and foraminifer age−diagnostic assemblages. A Lower Oligocene age of the Krabbedalen Formation seems to be supported by the dinoflagellate cyst assemblage analysis, while the pollen−spore as− semblages point to a wider stratigraphic age range within Oligocene–Middle Miocene.
Research on permafrost in the Abisko area of northern Sweden date from the 1950s. A mean annual air temperature of −3°C in the Abisko mountains (i.e. 1000 m a.s.l.) and −1°C beyond the mountain area at an altitude of around 400m suggests that both moun− tain and arctic permafrost occur there. Several geophysical surveys were performed by means of resistivity tomography (ERT) and electromagnetic mapping (EM). Wherever pos− sible the geophysical survey results were calibrated by digging tests pits. The results show that permafrost occurs extensively in the mountain areas, especially those above 900m a.s.l. and also sporadically at lower altitudes. At 400 m a.s.l. permafrost may be up to 30 m thick. Its thickness and extent are determined largely by the very variable local rock and soil con− ditions. Fossil permafrost is also likely to occur in this area.
Trace fossils Phymatoderma melvillensis isp. nov., Thalassinoides isp., ?Nereites isp. and Planolites isp. are reported from the glacio−marine sediments of the Cape Melville Formation (Lower Miocene) of King George Island, West Antarctica. Their occurrence and strong bioturbation of sediments point to an offshore or deeper (outer shelf or upper slope) en− vironment. Deep marine crab Antarctidromia inflata Förster, 1985, has been found in Thalassinoides isp. The tracemaker (?crustacean) of Phymatodermamelvillensis re−reworked pelletal sediments probably during times of food deficiency.
The present contribution to lichen−forming and lichenicolous biota of northern− most Billefjörden (Petuniabukta area, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard) contains 40 species of lichens. Four species: Arthonia ligniariella, Candelariella lutella, Ochrolechia upsaliensis, Polyblastia pernigrata are new for the Svalbard Archipelago.
Meteorological and biometeorological conditions during the warm seasons (June– September) of 1979–2008 are described for the Hornsund area, Spitsbergen. The measure− ments were taken at four sites: at Hornsund, at the Hans Glacier (at its equilibrium line and in the firn section) and at the summit of Fugleberget. The variation of meteorological and biometeorological conditions was analysed in relation to altitude, distance from the sea and the ground type. In warm seasons, the air temperature at Hornsund was 2.2°C higher on aver− age than at the Hans Glacier (central section) and by 2.8°C than at the Hans Glacier (firn sec− tion) and at Fugleberget. The average wind speed recorded at Hornsund was higher (0.6ms−1) than at the Hans Glacier and lower (0.9ms−1) than at Fugleberget. Four biometeorological in− dices were used: wind chill index (WCI), predicted insulation of clothing (Iclp), cooling power (H) and subjective temperature index (STI). The strongest thermal stimuli were ob− served on the Hans Glacier and in the upper mountain areas. The study has found a consider− able degree of spatial variation between the meteorological elements investigated and the biometeorological indices in the Hornsund area. The impact of atmospheric circulation on meteorological elements and biometeorological indices is also presented. The mildest bio− meteorological conditions of the warm season found at Hornsund were associated with air masses arriving from the southwest and west.
The Panorama Point Beds represent a subfacies of the Early to Middle Permian Radok Conglomerate, which is the oldest known sedimentary unit in the Prince Charles Mountains, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica. This unit records clastic sedimentation in fresh−water depositional system during the early stages of development of the Lambert Graben, a major structural valley surrounded by crystalline highlands in the southern part of Gondwana. It contains common siderite precipitated through early diagenetic processes in the swamp, stagnant water, and stream−flow environments. There are two types of siderite in the Panorama Point Beds: (1) disseminated cement that occurs throughout the sedimentary suc− cession; and (2) concretions that occur at recurrent horizons in fine−grained sediments. The cement is composed of Fe−depleted siderite (less than 90mol%FeCO3)with an elevated con− tent of magnesium, and trace and rare earth elements. It has negative #2;13CVPDB values (−4.5 to −1.5‰). The concretions are dominated by Fe−rich siderite (more than 90mol% FeCO3),with positive 13CVPDB values (+1 to +8‰). There are no noticeable differences in the oxygen (18OVPDB between −20 and −15‰) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr between 0.7271 and 0.7281) iso− topic compositions between the siderite types. The cement and concretions developed in the nearsurface to subsurface environment dominated by suboxic and anoxic methanic degrada− tion of organic matter, respectively. The common presence of siderite in the Panorama Point Beds suggests that fresh−water environments of the Lambert Graben were covered by vegetation, starting from the early history of its development in the Early Permian.
51 samples from the Middle Triassic black shales (organic carbon−rich silt− stones; up to 4.9% TOC – Total Organic Carbon) from the stratotype section of the Bravaisberget Formation (western Spitsbergen) were analyzed with respect to isotopic composition of pyritic sulphur (34S) and TOC. Isotopic composition of syngenetic py− rite−bound sulphur shows wide (34S from −26‰ to +8‰ VCDT) and narrow (34S from −4‰ to +17‰ VCDT) variation of the 34S in upper and lower part of the section, respec− tively. Range of the variation is associated with abrupt changes in dominant lithology. Wide 34S variation is found in lithological intervals characterized by alternation of black shales and phosphorite−bearing sandstones. The narrow 34S variation is associated with the lithological interval dominated by black shales only. Wide and narrow variation of the #2;34S values suggests interplay of various factors in sedimentary environment. These fac− tors include oxygen concentration, clastic sedimentation rate, bottom currents and bur− rowing activity. Biological productivity and rate of dissimilatory sulphate reduction had important impact on the 34S variation as well. Wide variation of the 34S values in the studied section resulted from high biological productivity and high rate of dissimilatory sulphate reduction. Variable degree of clastic sedimentation rate and burrowing activity as well as the activity of poorly oxygenated bottom currents could also cause a co−occurrence of isotopically light and heavy pyrite in differentiated diagenetic micro−environments. Occurrence of organic matter depleted in hydrogen could also result in a wide variation of the 34S values. Narrow variation of the #2;34S values was due to a decrease of biological productivity and low rate of dissimilatory sulphate reduction. Low organic matter supply, low oxygen concentration and bottom currents and burrowing activity were also responsible for narrow variation of the 34S. The narrow range of the 34S variation was also due to occurrence of hydrogen−rich organic matter. In the studied section the major change in range of the 34S variation from wide to narrow appears to be abrupt and clearly associated with change in lithology. The change of lithology and isotopic valuesmay sug− gest evolution of the sedimentary environment from high− to low−energy and also facies succession from shallow to deeper shelf. The evolution should be linked with the Late Anisian regional transgressive pulse in the Boreal Ocean.
During laboratory and field experiments on Nacella concinna on the west coast of Admiralty Bay, King George Island (Antarctica) clear morphological and behavioural differences between two limpet forms (N. concinna polaris and N. concinna concinna) were found. They suggested presence of genetic divergence. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) profiling of N. concinna individuals representing the two forms revealed nearly 32% of polymorphic bands; only 2% of them differed between the forms. Our results suggest that the observed phenotypic variation seems to be a result of adaptation to environ− mental conditions and not of any genetic divergence.
Pyrite framboids occur in loose blocks of plant−bearing clastic rocks related to volcano−sedimentary succession of the Mount Wawel Formation (Eocene) in the Dragon and Wanda glaciers area at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, West Antarctica. They were investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy−dispersive spectroscopy, X−ray diffraction, and isotopic analysis of pyritic sulphur. The results suggest that the pyrite formed as a result of production of hydrogen sulphide by sulphate reducing bacteria in near surface sedimentary environments. Strongly negative #2;34SVCDT values of pyrite (−30 – −25 ‰) support its bacterial origin. Perfect shapes of framboids resulted from their growth in the open pore space of clastic sediments. The abundance of framboids at cer− tain sedimentary levels and the lack or negligible content of euhedral pyrite suggest pulses of high supersaturation with respect to iron monosulphides. The dominance of framboids of small sizes (8–16 μm) and their homogeneous distribution at these levels point to recurrent development of a laterally continuous anoxic sulphidic zone below the sediment surface. Sedimentary environments of the Mount Wawel Formation developed on islands of the young magmatic arc in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region. They embraced stagnant and flowing water masses and swamps located in valleys, depressions, and coastal areas that were covered by dense vegetation. Extensive deposition and diagenesis of plant detritus in these environments promoted anoxic conditions in the sediments, and a supply of marine and/or volcanogenic sulphate enabled its bacterial reduction, precipitation of iron mono− sulphides, and their transformation to pyrite framboids.