Stable isotopes 18O and 13C record of the Kapp Starostin Formation (Late Permian) is presented. The interdependence of δ18O nad δ13C isotope time series is applied for calculating paleotemperatures in the depositional basin of the Kapp Starostin Formation. The obtained results indicate overall cooling from c. 25°—10°C, and confirm some paleogeographical and paleoclimatical inferrences.
Thermoluminescence datings of glacial and marine sediments from Sörkapp Land, southern Spitsbergen enabled to limit the Late and Middle Pleistocene glacial events in this area. Sediments of raised beaches at 15—18, 30—38 and 42—56 m a.s.l. in Breinesflya were TL dated for 63, 68 and 87 ka respectively. Four other dates from Lisbetdalen, Slaklidalen and Sergeijevskardet proved two glacial advances during the Sörkapp Land ( = Wiirm) Glaciation. named the Lisbetdalen Stage (47 and 41 ka) and the Slaklidalen Stage (28 and 22 ka). Glacial sediments on slopes of Gavrilovfjellet and Strupryggen were dated for 141 and 217 ka respectively. These dates prove the glaciers of the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (= Riss) Glaciation occupied a considerably larger area in southern Spitsbergen than the glaciers of the following Sorkapp Land Glaciation.
Three types of rock glaciers (moraine, cirque and subslope ones) were distinguished in northwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land. Subslope rock glaciers were found different from nival moraines. A development of subslope and fossil cirque rock glaciers was connected with the older Holocene whereas of active cirque and moraine rock glaciers with the Little Ice Age.
Preliminary results of field investigations and analysis of air photos of the Tjörn Valley region (Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen) are presented. The youngest, Quaternary deposits and landforms were mapped. Reconstruction of the last advance and retreat of the Tjörndals Glacier is also described.
The paper presents plant communities from northern Wedel Jarlsberg Land. 55 species of vascular plants were described in this region. Differentiation of plant communities is discussed as controlled by habitat conditions. Plant succession in intramorainal zones of Renardbreen and Scottbreen has been also considered.
Temporal differentiation of the air thermal conditions in SW part of Spitsbergen has been presented in this paper. Daily meteorological records of the Polish Polar Station of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Hornsund have been used for the period of 1978—1986. Distributions of basic thermal indices based on mean, maximum, minimum air temperatures and minimum temperature at a ground surface have been given. Annual patterns of the above elements of various occurrence probabilities have been also presented and thermal periods have been distinguished.
An analysis of observation material concerning fog occurrence in Hornsund collected by seven whole-year expeditions of the Polish Academy of Sciences' to Spitsbergen in 1957—58, 1978—1980, 1981—1985 is presented. The frequencies of fog occurrence in Hornsund during a year and in particular months are compared with respective frequencies calculated for Norwegian stations in Svalbard. Data from the Poland territory are also quoted. The dependences of the fog frequency in Hornsund on air masses advection, circulation type, direction and speed of local winds, time of observation and temperature are shortly analyzed. The periods with long-lasting fogs (exampled by synoptic situations that favor them) are discussed more precisely. A short description of main meteorologie processes favoring the occurrence of fog in this part of Spitsbergen is presented.
Three tectonic units occur in folded stratified volcanic sequence on Barton Peninsula. Fossil flora (Del Valle et al. 1984) occurs in the basal part of the upper unit which age is not younger than Paleocene. The rocks of the middle and lower units are older, possibly Mesozoie.
In 1979 54 water samples were collected at two oceanographic stations located in Admiralty Bay. Ranges of seasonal changes were found for the values of ten parameters: water temperature, salinity, dissolved О, pH, the contents of PO4 , Si, NO2, NO3, chlorophyll α and plant carotenoids at six depths between surface and 400 m. Data for temperature and salinity showed the absence of distinct thermoclines or haloelines which reflects the very low stability of waters in the Bay. The concentrations of nutrients were high during the entire year and they were not limiting for phytoplankton growth. Only nitrates decreased distinctly during algal blooms. The high dynamics of waters in the Bay causes a lowering in the chlorophyll α content to a maximum of about 2 mg/m3. Oceanographic, hydrochemical and hydrological conditions in Admiralty Bay are typical for the Antarctic shelf waters in this geographical region.
Classification of water masses in the area investigated during the 1981 FIBEX Expedition and two winter expeditions at the "H. Arctowski" Station using the method of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) is presented. Four basic water masses (warm and cold Bellinghausen Sea surface waters, surface Weddell Sea waters, Circumpolar Warm Deep Water (CWDW) and the transitional zone) were observed in the area and a significant dependence of water masses distribution ón depth was found. A strong winter increase in the Weddell Sea waters influence was recorded.
Density, composition and domination structure of the sea ice microalgae in the Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands) were investigated in 1983. Algae were recorded both in discoloured and in colourless sea ice from June to October. The highest algae density, amounting to 5 x 105 cells in 1 cm3 was observed till the end of August, the diatoms Nitzschia cylindrus and N. curta being the dominant species. A total of 95 algal taxa. mostly diatoms, were recorded. Air temperature seems to be an important factor influencing the development of algae in sea ice.
The amount and composition of lipids m some Antarctic animals were studied. The material consisted of crustaceans (Euphausia superba, Paramoera sp., Orchomene sp.), tunicates (Salpa thompsoni) and vertebrates (Notothenia rossi marmorata and Hydrurga leptonyx). The author's data are discussed on the background of available literature information.
At the turn of October 1985, the abundance of breeding Adelie penguins was estimated at the Hope Bay oasis on the Antarctic Peninsula and on Seymour Island. In the Hope Bay rookery, 123850 pairs of penguins were recorded, beginning their breeding at the end of October. Data so far obtained indicate a continuous increase in the number of birds sat this rookery. On the other hand, the Seymour Island colony consisted of 21954 pairs of Adélie penguins. Clear differences in the geomorphological structure of areas occupied by penguins in those two places are discussed. No gentoo penguins were detected in either of the colonies.
During the BIOMASS-SIBEX Antarctic expedition the distribution of Copepoda in three water layers (0—100, 100—300 and 300—500 m) in the Bransfield Strait and southern Drake Passage was studied. Altogether 46 taxa were recorded (Tabs. 1 and 2); the number of taxa increased with depth. Faunistic differences between the Drake Passage and the Bransfield Strait were observed. In some species the age-related splitting of the populations was registered (Figs. 2, 3 and 4). Young generations occupied usually the upper water layers.
The paper presents results of investigations of bottom sediments in Hornsund, Wijdefjorden and Isfjorden as well as of the shelf around the Bjornoya. carried out in 1982—1985 by a continuous seismic profiling. Geophysic structures and bottom sediments on the bedrock to a depth of 170 ms have been recognized, particularly in the Hornsund region. The following seismoacoustic units have been distinguished: unit A — bedrock, unit В — till and/or compacted glaciogenic deposit, unit С — glaciomarine ice-front deposit, unit D — glaciomarine mud. These results allowed to present a model of glaciomarine sedimentation in a fiord, fed by warm tidewater glaciers.
Ground temperature measurement results in main ecotopes of the Kaffiöyra coastal plain (Oscar II Land, northwestern Spitsbergen): sea beach, tundra and morainic plateau, are presented and discussed in the paper. The spatial distribution of thermal conditions is discussed with particular regard to temperature of the active surface and vertical gradients of temperature dependent on daytime and weather conditions.
Great ablation of the Werenskiold Glacier created the need of recording the changes particularly superficial ones, after melting of its icingsGround stereophotogrammetric photos done during the Polar Expedition of the Polish Academy of Sciences in 1983 enabled to prepare a map in the scale of 1:10,000 covering by its two sheets the whole glacier, a system of open crevasses inclusive. The map presents the actual state of the glacier and enables a comparison with earlier photogrammetric measurements carried out several times since 1957.
Results of measurements of temperature and salinity of surface waters of the Hornsund (South Spitsbergen) carried out at a coastal point of the Isbjornhamna Bay during the winter expedition 1979/80 of the Polish Academy of Sciences are discussed. Courses of both parameters, their variability, mean values and distributions are analyzed.
A high content of fluorine was found in ornithogenic soils around penguin rookeries on King George Island. South Shetland Islands. Fluorine is inherent in 0.11% in krill (Euphausia superba). eaten by penguins. Fluorine content in penguins excreta increased approximately to 0.43%. and after decomposition and leaching to 1.03%. The concentration grew during mineralization of organic matter in guano (up to 2.2%). In a surface layer of guano fluorine occurred in apatite. A phosphatization was noted in a subsurface zone as the result of a reaction between guano leachates and weathered volcanic rocks. In the upper part of this zone near the large rookeries a fluorine occurred in minyulite (aluminium phosphate containing potassium and fluorine) and fluorine content here reached 3.5%. Sometimes fluorine was also bound with amorphous aluminium phosphate (up. to 2.0%). formed as a result of incongruently dissolving of minyulite in pure water.
The analysis of speed and direction distribution of upper wind in the layer up to 3500 m was carried out on the basis of pibal ascents performed over the Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands).
The comparison of the years 1981/82 and 1984/85 on the background of long term climatic observations on Svalbard suggest that two seasons compared belong to extremely different ones with regard to the sea ice, air temperature and biological phenomena. Despite meteorological and hydrological differences, the phytoplankton bloom and breeding period of major crustaceans were placed in the same time of the year. Differences were noted in the structure of zooplankton community, abundance of sea birds and mammals.
In the bottom fauna of the Van Keulen fiord 53 taxa of invertebrates (51 species) were recorded. Four different bottom types were sampled and the distribution of invertebrates in these bottom types is discussed. The most important components in the benthos of the fiord were Polvchaeta. Crustacea. Bivalvia and Gastropoda (79.2%). From the zoogeographical point of view the Van Keulen fiord should be included into the transient zone, situated at the border of the boreal and arctic zones.
10 species of decapod crustaceans were found in Hornsund fiord and adjacent waters of South Spitsbergen. Habitat preferences are given for the species observed as well as distribution maps. Length — weight relationship, length frequency distribution and estimation of life cycles is given for most common species.