This study investigated changes in the real-time measured levels of milk β-hydroxybutyrate according milk yield, lactation number and status of reproduction in dairy cows. A total of 378 cows were selected. According to their reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following groups: Fresh (1 – 44 days after calving. n=43). Open (45 – 65 days after calving. n=78), Inseminated (1 – 35 days after insemination. n=133). Pregnant (35 – 60 days after insemination and pregnant (relatively pregnant) (n=124). The cows were milked with DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden) in combination with a Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) analyser. We observed that milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) had a tendency of increasing with an increase of lactation number. The average BHB in multiparous cows was 11.111% higher in comparison with primiparous cows (p<0.001). We found higher BHB concentration in the multiparous cows in all reproduction status groups (p<0.001). A strong positive statistically significant (p<0.001) relationship has been found between BHB and the average milk yield within all groups of primiparous cows although we found a statistically unreliable coefficient of correlation (from -0.202 to 0.057) between highest milk yield and BHB in primiparous and multiparous cows.
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the ability of spermatozoa to bind exoge- nous DNA and transfer it into oocytes by fertilization. However, SMGT is still undergoing opti- mization to improve its efficiency to produce transgenic animals. The acrosome reaction is neces- sary for spermatozoa to carry the exogenous DNA into oocytes. In this study, the effect of the acrosome reaction on the efficiency of spermatozoa carrying exogenous DNA was evalua- ted. The results showed that the efficiency of the acrosome reaction was significantly higher (p<0.05) after incubation with 50 μmol/L progesterone compared to incubation without proges- terone. It was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 20, 40, and 60 min of progesterone treatment groups than in the 0 min treatment group. The spermatozoa were further incubated with cyanine dye Cy5 labeled DNA (Cy5-DNA) for 30 min at 37°C, and positive fluorescence signals were detected after the acrosome reaction was induced by progesterone at concentrations of 0 and 50 μmol/L for 40 min. The percentage of positive Cy5-DNA signals in spermatozoa was 96.61±2.06% and 97.51±2.03% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respective- ly. The percentage of partial spermatozoa heads observed following combination with Cy5-DNA was 39.73±3.03% and 56.88±3.12% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respec- tively. The ratio of positively stained spermatozoa combined with exogenous DNA showed no reduction after the acrosome reaction. These results suggest that the acrosome reaction might not be the key factor affecting the efficiency of SMGT.
In the present study a severe outbreak of hemorrhagic pneumonia (HP) in neonatal minks concomitant with Leismania infantum (L. infantum) detection is reported. The outbreak took place on a Greek mink farm and affected 1,362 mink kits, with 524 dying. Macroscopic lesions of 14 necropsied affected kits were confined to the respiratory system with dark red, consolidated lung lobes and to the small intestine with severe, acute, hemorrhagic and necrotic enteritis. Microscopic examination of lung sections revealed severe hemorrhagic pyogranulomatous pneumonia. Bacteria were obtained in pure culture from the lungs of all necropsied animals and were confirmed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Three out of 14 (21.4%) animals were positive for the presence of L. infantum DNA. The outbreak was attributed to the infection of minks with P. aeruginosa, possibly as a consequence of being immuno-suppressed by L. infantum. Further research is necessary, especially on the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa/L. infantum co-infection and the implications of this interaction on HP disease outcome.
Taking bacterial virulence factors as targets is a new therapy for treating host bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on α-hemolysin production of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and reducing the damage to bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) induced by S. aureus α-hemolysin. Subinhibitory concentrations of matrine decreased the production of α-hemolysin in none dose-dependent manner and matrine exhibited a protective effect on S. aureus-induced BMECs injury. The results indicated that the structure of matrine may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed at curing and preventing dairy bovine mastitis.
The bacterial species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica are pathogenic for humans and domestic animals and are transmitted by ticks, e.g., of the Ixodes genus. Most of the vertebrate species constituting reservoirs for anaplasmas are known, but the potential reservoirs of rickettsiae are still under discussion. This study presents an analysis of the DNA of tick-borne pathogens isolated from the whole blood of goats grazing on meadows in West Pomerania, Poland. No DNA of A. phagocytophilum was found in the blood of the goats, while the DNA of R. helvetica was detected in 5.5% of the animals. The potential role of ruminants in the circulation of R. helvetica remains unknown.
Recent outbreaks of adenovirus (FAdV) infections in poultry flocks have been determined in many countries in Europe, Asia and Australia connected with economic consequences, and loses in poultry production. To better understand the evolution and transmission of FAdV viruses, de- tailed codon usage analysis was performed for 137 recently obtained FAdV strains. A high effec- tive number of codons, and an indication the presence of low codon usage were determined. The presence of mutations, and their influence on codon usage was confirmed by a correlation be- tween nucleotide compositions at the 3rd codon positions, HVRs1-4, and ENCs. This presence indicate some influence of natural selection, and antigenic properties of examined FAdV strains.
The objective of this study was to investigate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar added to drinking water with the anticoccidial effect of amprolium to feed broiler chicken. The study has adopted an observational approach to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar on broiler chicken. The antioxidative changes were measured adding natural apple cider vinegar to drinking water. Four hundred and fifty broiler chickens were purchased from the local market and distributed into three groups (T+vc: positive control, T-vc: negative control Tv: apple cider vinegar) with 150 chickens in each group. The three groups were further replicated into 3 blocks each containing 50 chickens. The groups were fed balanced diet, amprolium was added to the feed of positive control group, and apple cider vinegar was added to the water of Tv group. Measurements of the different variables were started from week 3, at the end of each week 3 birds were chosen randomly, blood samples were collected via the wing vein, and fecal oocysts were counted from intestinal contents of each individual bird using the McMaster technique. Broiler in the control groups T+ve and T-ve showed clinical signs of coccidiosis (blood in feces) and the number of coccidial oocytes in feces increased with time. In the vinegar group, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed. Concentrations of total antioxidants and catalase enzyme activity significantly increased (p≤0.05); while malondialdehyde concentration significantly decreased (p≤0.05).
Inflammation together with lipolysis and ketogenesis in early lactation can cause low productivity and may be harmful to the cow health. The objective of the study was to determine if ketoprofen treatment in the first days following parturition would positively affect the milk production and whether it was associated with the metabolic and inflammatory response. The study was conducted on 30 cows divided into two groups of 15 cows each. The experimental group was treated with 3 mg × kg. bw. -1 ketoprofen for three consecutive days after parturition. The blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment and in the first and second week postpartum and they were analyzed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), tumour necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) and haptoglobin. The results suggested that ketoprofen-treated cows with a higher milk production had a significantly lower concentration of NEFA, BHB, TNF-a and haptoglobin in the first and second week postpartum. No differences were found in the control group in metabolic status regardless of the achieved level of milk production. Ketoprofen administration in postpartum cows can enhance the milk yield. The higher milk yield in the experimental group might be associated with a lower degree of lipolysis, ketogenesis and reduced inflammatory response in the first two weeks postpartum.
Current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of royal jelly on Flunixin me- glumine (FM)-induced spermiotoxicity related to sperm concentration, abnormal spermatozoa count and histopathological changes in mice testis. The subjects were divided into five groups according to FM and/or royal jelly intake: Control group; group 1, FM alone (25 mg/kg, im); group 2, combination of FM (25 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral); group 3, FM alone (50 mg/kg, im); and group 4, combination of FM (50 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral). The animals were fed once daily for 15 days and they were sacrificed last day. Epididymal sperm concentration and abnormal spermatozoa count were noted. Testicular histological findings were evaluated. On purpose, organization of each animal was graded according to Johnsen’s scoring to assess the spermatogenesis relying on seminiferous tubule cross-section scores. Comparing to controls, FM administration caused a decrease in sperm concentration (p<0.05), an increase in total abnormal spermatozoa rates (p<0.05) and more degenerative changes in testes in mice. Royal jelly supplementation ameliorated both sperm concentration and abnormal spermato- zoa (p<0.05) comparing to the control group. In conclusion, we suggested that royal jelly might have protective effects in the FM-induced reductions in epididymal sperm concentration and in- crease in abnormal spermatozoa rate.
In humans, iron deficiency represents a relevant occurrence in heart failure (HF), with or without anaemia, and is associated with the worst outcome. Moreover, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a well-known comorbidity of HF and is strongly associated with the risk of developing anaemia. The most common cause of HF in dogs is myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the iron status in dogs with HF, with and without CKD. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the iron status in dogs affected by MMVD and how strong is the relation with HF. The retrospective study included 54 dogs with complete case records, echocardiography and laboratory analyses. Iron status was evaluated by measuring serum iron concentration (SIC), un- saturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and percentage of saturation (%SAT). The prevalence of dogs showing low serum iron concentration (SIC) was 18% in the whole population, 33% in symptomatic patients, 100% in dogs with acute decompensated HF. No signif- icant differences in SIC, UIBC, TIBC and %SAT median values were found among dogs classi- fied in different ACVIM (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine) classes, between symptomatic and non-symptomatic patients, and among IRIS (International Renal Interest Soci- ety) classes. Azotemic and non-azotemic patients presented a significant difference in SIC mean values (p=0.02). Generalised linear model (GLM) revealed that dogs with low SIC were at high- er risk of being included in a higher ACVIM class (OR=6.383, p-value=0.014). Log-rank analysis showed shorter survival in dogs with low SIC (p=0.020), multivariate Cox analysis revealed that only HF symptoms can affect survival.
Due to the unrecognized effect of tigecycline (TIG) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the present study has been undertaken in order to determine whether the drug can affect these cells in respect of their counts, and the production of IFN-γ, IL-17 (pro-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokines), IL-4 (anti-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokine), IL-10 and TGF-β (anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive cytokines). Murine lymphocytes were treated with TIG for 48 and 96 h at concentrations reflecting its plasma levels obtained in vivo at therapeutic doses, and at 10-fold lower concentrations. It was found that TIG neither affected substantially the percentage and absolute counts of entire CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations nor influenced the Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory/suppressive T cell subset. Furthermore, the percentages of IL-4-, IL-10-, IL-17- and TGF-β-producing CD4+ T cells were not altered following the exposure to TIG. Similarly, TIG did not influence IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells. Thus, with respect to the parameters evaluated, TIG does not seem to exert immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory effects.
The aim of this study was to establish reference values for 2D and M-mode measurements in Dachshunds. Basic echocardiographic data, including M-mode, 2D and spectral Doppler measurements, was collected, analyzed and compared between 41 healthy Dachshunds and 50 other healthy dogs of similar weight. Echocardiographic reference intervals were prepared for Dachshunds. Dachshunds had a smaller left ventricular diameter in diastole and systole and a thicker septum than other dog breeds. Male Dachshunds had larger diastolic and systolic left ventricular diameter than females. Reference intervals for 2D and M-mode measurements in healthy Dachshunds differ from other dogs of similar weight and should be used for this breed to assess chamber enlargement.