Changes in the size and the age structure of a population have a great impact on an economy, especially on national savings and capital flows. Poland’s population, although still relatively young when compared to other developed countries, is expected to experience accelerated ageing and decline in forthcoming decades. In this paper, we assess the effects of these processes for Polish economy. Using an open-economy OLG model with demographic shocks and a variable retirement age, we simulate dynamics of real interest rates, main macro aggregates as well as net foreign assets to GDP. We show that rapid ageing will reduce the interest rate gap between Poland and the developed countries by 1.3-2 p.p. We also document a strong positive relationship between interest rates and the retirement age and find that the decline in the interest rate in Poland is primarily driven by the surviving probability shock
The aim of the study is to discuss the relationship of the crude oil price, speculative activity and fundamental factors. An empirical study was conducted with a VEC model. Two cointegrating vectors were identified. The first vector represents the speculative activity. We argue that the number of short non-commercial positions increases with the crude oil stock and price, decreases with the higher number of long non-commercial positions. A positive trend of crude oil prices may be a signal for traders outside the industry to invest in the oil market, especially as access to information could be limited for them. The second vector represents the crude oil price under the fundamental approach. The results support the hypothesis that the crude oil price is dependent on futures trading. The higher is a number of commercial long positions, the greater is the pressure on crude oil price to increase.
The paper considers a private ownership economy in which economic agents could realize their aims at given prices, Walras Law is satisfied but agents’ optimal plans of action do not lead to an equilibrium in the economy. It means that the market clearing condition is not satisfied for agents’ optimal plans of action. In this context, the paper puts forward three specific adjustment processes resulting in equilibrium in a transformation of the initial economy. Specifically, it is shown, by the use of strict mathematical reasoning, that if there is no equilibrium in a private ownership economy at given prices, then, under some natural economic assumptions, after a mild evolution of the production sector, equilibrium at unchanged prices can be achieved.
In this paper we develop an open-economy endogenous growth model to examine the influence of fiscal policy on the economy in the long run. We allow for public deficit and 5 types of taxes. One of the novel features is separate treatment of interest rates on public and private debt, both of which are linear functions of appropriate debt-to-GDP ratios. Two extreme situations are analyzed: a model of “decentralized economy”, where economic agents do not take into account any externalities, and a model of “benevolent social planner”. We derive the rules of optimal fiscal policy that induce economic agents to internalize all externalities. Theoretical results are illustrated with an empirical analysis for Poland. The optimal values of several fiscal policy instruments for Poland are calculated.
The main goal of this paper is to propose the probabilistic description of cyclical (business) fluctuations. We generalize a fixed deterministic cycle model by incorporating the time-varying amplitude. More specifically, we assume that the mean function of cyclical fluctuations depends on unknown frequencies (related to the lengths of the cyclical fluctuations) in a similar way to the almost periodic mean function in a fixed deterministic cycle, while the assumption concerning constant amplitude is relaxed. We assume that the amplitude associated with a given frequency is time-varying and is a spline function. Finally, using a Bayesian approach and under standard prior assumptions, we obtain the explicit marginal posterior distribution for the vector of frequency parameters. In our empirical analysis, we consider the monthly industrial production in most European countries. Based on the highest marginal data density value, we choose the best model to describe the considered growth cycle. In most cases, data support the model with a time-varying amplitude. In addition, the expectation of the posterior distribution of the deterministic cycle for the considered growth cycles has similar dynamics to cycles extracted by standard bandpass filtration methods.
This paper presents maximum score type estimators for linear, binomial, tobit and truncated regression models. These estimators estimate the normalized vector of slopes and do not provide the estimator of intercept, although it may appear in the model. Strong consistency is proved. In addition, in the case of truncated and tobit regression models, maximum score estimators allow restriction of the sample in order to make ordinary least squares method consistent.
Poland is expected to enter the Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II). The European Central Bank recommends that the ERM II central rate should reflect the best possible assessment of the equilibrium exchange rate. Since the equilibrium rate is changing in time, it is important to identify the pushing and pulling forces of the exchange rate. This knowledge will let the authorities to defend only the exchange rate that is in equilibrium and to assess outcomes of their actions. We use the VEC approach of Johansen to estimate the behavioral equilibrium exchange rate and to identify the pushing forces of the Polish zloty/euro rate. We apply the Gonzalo-Granger decomposition to calculate the permanent equilibrium exchange rate and to identify the pulling forces of the zloty exchange rate. We demonstrate that this approach may be useful for Polish authorities while entering the ERM II as well as within that mechanism.
The main goal of this paper is to analyze the matching function in the Polish labour market in 1994‒2008. Matching function is the relationship between outflows from unemployment to employment and the number of unemployed persons and vacancies as well as other variables which affect the efficiency of the matching process directly or indirectly. Such matching function in its augmented form is estimated here for Poland with the use of data from register of unemployed persons. The results indicate that there is a statistically stronger impact of the unemployed than vacancies on new hires. Furthermore, the institutional conditions of the labour market, the structure of the unemployed and the participants of active labour market programs (ALMP) play a role in the matching process.
For the private and public sector in any particular country it is crucial to know, which industries may exhibit comparative advantages, that for some reasons are not realized. This can efficiently help all current and potential actors to improve their economic strategy both at the micro- and macroeconomic level. In this paper we propose an approach of forecasting comparative advantages dynamics in foreign trade. The instrument is based on relative price differences and is efficient for countries in the process of economic liberalization. An empirical analysis based on the example of Central and East European countries confirms a good performance in the sense of predictive power of this instrument. On the example of Russia, experiencing a period of economic liberalization and with the prospect to join the WTO agreements, we demonstrate which sectors are most likely to contain comparative advantages in the near future.