In this paper, the issue of the correlation between the status of the onymic object, its social range and the general rules used when naming is considered. The author proposes to distinguish two basic levels of where the proper names function: a local one and a global one. Then, two particular patterns of naming are connected with these levels: an innovative pattern and a conservative pattern. The conservative names mostly refer to objects that are of social importance and have a general, wide range of functioning. On the other hand, innovative names generally refer to unstable objects that have a rather low social position, and a restricted, narrow range of functioning. Examples of both levels are analyzed, particularly the anthroponyms, toponyms and chrematonyms. The paper contains the argument, that more known conservative names have provided the characteristics of the prototypical proper name in general, and these characteristics are usually expanded to all proper names in their theoretical approaches.
The changes in the paralinguistic (social, economic, cultural) and linguistic sphere influence the quantitative and qualitative changes in a categorically diversified onomastic resource and the communicative flow of its elements on three levels of linguistic contact — nationwide, local and individual. The flow is additionally determined in the sphere of spontaneous everyday communication and in higher communicative functions (official linguistic behaviour). The accumulation of determinants which allow the usage of appropriate names and appellative forms (official and unofficial, e.g. diminutives, feminisms) involves the application of cumulative research methods, including psycho-, socio- and pragmalinguistic description of proper names functioning in communication. The contemporary theory of discourse in its three dimensions — formal, functional and interactional gives this possibility. It also requires the constant specification and standardization of Neoslavonic onomastic terminology.
As part of a general lexical system, urbanonymy reflects cultural phenomena in a broad sense. Alongside often discussed and well-studied lexical units, there are other urbanonyms that have been neglected by researchers for various reasons. Intra-city names containing numbers and figures belong to this neglected category. The aim of the study is to define the role of numbers and figures in Slavic urbanonymic systems. The research material is comprised of the contemporary urbanonymy of cities in Belarus, Russia, Poland and Bulgaria; toponymic dictionaries, electronic resources, tourist guides, maps and atlases have been used. The author demonstrates the shared and specific features of the numbers and figures used in the Belarusian urbanonymic system, as compared to that of Russia, Poland and Bulgaria. The symbolic meaning of these figures in the Slavic urbanomasticon is also discussed. I n spite of the existing differences in the use of names with a numerical component, their composition can be treated as a universal onomastic process. Street names containing figures are part of national culture, as they call to mind important national events or facts, both past and present. This helps individuals cultivate a personal sense of belonging to their native land, thus contributing to the preservation of tradition.
The paper points out the role of terms in academic activity, particularly in onomastics. A survey of onomastic terms present in Polish dictionaries of linguistic terminology and onomastic encyclopaedias has been made. The need has been stressed to follow the rules of terminography in every dictionary of terms. Some normative terms, such as official name, dialectal name, minority name, have been suggested to be included as additional entries in glossaries of onomastic terms.
The article aims to demonstrate the role of chrematonymy in a broadly understood contemporary (modern) world culture. The author identifies possible chrematonimic categories and subcategories, discusses their formal and functional properties, and the methods and conditions involved in their creation. The paralexical and communicational phenomena associated with this general class of onymy (e.g. the use of logotypes and extralinguistic signs as well as letter and numeric codes in chrematonymic function) is also discussed.
The article discusses the issue of proper names defined as symptoms of culture. The first part is of a theoretical character and develops the theory of symptomatology of culture in the context of semiotics (Ch. Peirce), psychology and psychoanalysis (S. Freud and J. Lacan), and onomastics. Symptomatology of culture is a practice of interpreting a certain group of texts of culture and extracting common qualitative traits within them. This is especially in the case of those traits specific to them and often encountered, which could testify to particular serious and deeply-rooted social phenomena leading to their appearance. In the empirical part the author presents a way of using (onymic) symptomatology in practice to research modern culture. She uses the examples of popular psychological and auto-therapeutic guidebooks and treats them as linguistic symptomatic forms of the most significant linguistic and cultural phenomena along with their social causes and functions which are often dysfunctional or abnormal in character. The analysis comprises the most typical conceptual and syntactic constructions encountered in the group.