Dynamics of a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas where molecular vibrational relaxation takes place is studied. Variations in the vibrational energy in the field of intense sound is considered. These variations are caused by a nonlinear transfer of the acoustic energy into energy of vibrational degrees of freedom in a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equation which describes this is instantaneous, it includes a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of high-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions in a gas. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of the vibrational mode caused by periodic and aperiodic sounds are made.
Instantaneous acoustic heating of a viscous fluid flow in a boundary layer is the subject of investigation. The governing equation of acoustic heating is derived by means of a special linear combination of conservation equations in the differential form, which reduces all acoustic terms in the linear part of the final equation but preserves terms belonging to the thermal mode. The procedure of decomposition is valid in a weakly nonlinear flow, it yields the nonlinear terms responsible for the modes interaction. Nonlinear acoustic terms form a source of acoustic heating in the case of the dominative sound. This acoustic source reflects the thermoviscous and dispersive properties of a fluid flow. The method of deriving the governing equations does not need averaging over the sound period, and the final governing dynamic equation of the thermal mode is instantaneous. Some examples of acoustic heating are illustrated and discussed, and conclusions about efficiency of heating caused by different waveforms of sound are made.
This study is devoted to the instantaneous acoustic heating of a shear-thinning fluid. Apparent viscosity of a shear-thinning fluid depends on the shear rate. That feature distinguishes it from a viscous Newtonian fluid. The special linear combination of conservation equations in the differential form makes it possible to derive dynamic equations governing both the sound and non-wave entropy mode induced in the field of sound. These equations are valid in a weakly nonlinear flow of a shear-thinning fluid over an unbounded volume. They both are instantaneous, and do not require a periodic sound. An example of a sound waveform with a piecewise constant shear rate is considered as a source of acoustic heating.