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Abstract

Three problems in the taxonomy of Pancratium in Egypt are the lack of publications, a lack of clarity about the relationships between recently distinguished species, and the lack of markers for examining the levels and patterns of variation in rare and endemic species; the latter hinders work in plant conservation genetics. In this study we reassessed the taxonomic status of the Pancratium species of Egypt, and examined morphological and genetic variation within and between species, using specimens from different populations collected throughout its distribution range in the country. Our assessment was based on 38 macromorphological characters mainly representing vegetative parts, flowers, fruits and seeds, in addition to RAPD data. The results revealed five morphologically distinguished Pancratium species in Egypt, of which P. trianthum Herb. is newly recorded. Species identification was confirmed by two phenetic dendrograms generated with 26 quantitative morphological characters and RAPD data, while species delimitation was verified by principal component analysis. The diagnostic floral characters are those of the perianth, corona teeth, pistil, stamens, aerial scape, spathe, and number of flowers. The retrieved RAPD polymorphic bands show better resolution of the morphologically and ecologically closely allied Pancratium species (P. arabicum and P. maritimum), and also confirm the morphological and ecological divergence of P. tortuosum from the other studied species. These results are supported by the constructed UPGMA dendrogram.
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Abstract

We used simple sequence repeat markers and 25 morphological characters to characterize 18 Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars. Morphological traits suggested a high level of variation in the germplasm. Principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated the studied cultivars. In the derived dendrogram the cultivars clustered independently of their geographical origin and sex of trees. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to compare genetic polymorphism with the observed phenotypic variation. Using six microsatellite primers, 39 alleles and 59 genotypes were identified. The high values of polymorphism information content (PIC), ranging from 0.67 to 0.85, confirmed the effectiveness of microsatellite analysis for determining molecular polymorphism and characterizing the studied cultivars. Multilocus genotyping unambiguously distinguished all the cultivars. The ability of each type of feature to differentiate cultivars of this crop is discussed.
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Abstract

Abstract The study investigates the genetic differentiation among two subspecies of Allium ursinum L., namely A. ursinum subsp. ursinum and subsp. ucrainicum as well as their putative hybrid that is represented by individuals with intermediate morphology. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) were applied to determine the status of intermediate morphotypes in terms of their genetic pattern and to assess the level of genetic variability within and between various populations of A. ursinum. The study comprises 144 specimens from nine populations along the east-west transect in Poland, which includes localities of both subspecies and their putative hybrid. Among the examined populations, 48 bands were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), the neighbour-net analysis and Mantel test showed a strong correlation between genetic variability and geographic distance. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that a greater proportion of total genetic variation resided within populations rather than among them. The Structure Bayesian clustering analysis revealed the presence of three distinct genetic groups within studied populations, where ‘eastern’ genotypes correspond to A. ursinum subsp. ucrainicum, and ‘western’ to subsp. ursinum; whereas the third genetic group has the largest share in the individuals occurring at the border of the distribution ranges of both subspecies. The emergence of the third genetic group is probably an effect of hybridization events occurring within the secondary contact zone. Typical morphologically intermediate populations occur only in a relatively narrow geographical zone, but the hybrid zone revealed by molecular markers is actually much wider than it is suggested by the morphological pattern of individuals. The current distribution pattern of both subspecies of A. ursinum and their hybrid zone is related to the two main directions of postglacial migration of Fagus sylvatica to the area of Poland. The hybrid zone arose as an effect of the secondary contact of two divergent lineages of A. ursinum.
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