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Abstract

In the paper an example of application of the Kalman filtering in the navigation process of automatically guided vehicles was presented. The basis for determining the position of automatically guided vehicles is odometry – the navigation calculation. This method of determining the position of a vehicle is affected by many errors. In order to eliminate these errors, in modern vehicles additional systems to increase accuracy in determining the position of a vehicle are used. In the latest navigation systems during route and position adjustments the probabilistic methods are used. The most frequently applied are Kalman filters.
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Abstract

This work is focused on the issue of non-measured points – one of the most important problems in surface texture measurements using optical methods. The fundamental aim of this research is to analyse errors of surface texture measurements caused by the presence of non-measured points. This study is divided into two parts. In the first part, circles with non-measured points were artificially created on peak portions of measured surfaces. In the second part – the results of measurement by a Talysurf CCI Lite interferometer were analysed. A measurement area of 3.3 × 3.3 mm contained 1024 × 1024 points. The measurements were performed with different intensity of light. Changes of parameters regarding the analysed errors depended on a surface type. The following parameters are susceptible to errors: skewness Ssk, areal material ratio Smr, as well as the following feature parameters: Spd, Sda, Sdv, Sha and Shv. Inaccuracies of measurement in valley parts of two-process textures led usually to larger errors of parameter computations compared with deviations in peak portions.
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