Sparse fish microremains have been found in marine limestones from the Middle Devonian (Givetian) Skały Formation (Sitka Coral-Crinoid Limestone Member and Sierżawy Member), Świętomarz–Śniadka section, Bodzentyn Syncline, Łysogóry Region, northern Holy Cross Mountains, associated with conodonts of the hemiansatus to ansatus zones. Thelodont scales referred here to Australolepis sp. cf. A. seddoni come from near Śniadka village, from samples dated as hemiansatus to rhenanus/varcus zones. This increases the known range for the genus from its original find in Western Australia. The presence of a thelodont in the late Middle Devonian in Poland extends the known distribution of turiniids around the peri-Gondwana shorelines of Palaeotethys.
The Indian Cave Sandstone (Upper Pennsylvanian, Gzhelian) from the area of Peru, Nebraska, USA, has yielded numerous isolated chondrichthyan remains and among them teeth and dermal denticles of the Symmoriiformes Zangerl, 1981. Two tooth-based taxa were identified: a falcatid Denaea saltsmani Ginter and Hansen, 2010, and a new species of Stethacanthus Newberry, 1889, S. concavus sp. nov. In addition, there occur a few long, monocuspid tooth-like denticles, similar to those observed in Cobelodus Zangerl, 1973, probably representing the head cover or the spine-brush complex. A review of the available information on the fossil record of Symmoriiformes has revealed that the group existed from the Late Devonian (Famennian) till the end of the Middle Permian (Capitanian).
Here we use synchrotron tomography to characterise dental vasculature in the oldest known tooth-bearing sharks, Leonodus carlsi Mader, 1986 and Celtiberina maderi Wang, 1993. Three dimensional reconstruction of the vascular system and microstructure of both taxa revealed a complex and dense network of canals, including horizontal, ascending and secondary bifurcated canals, as well as histological features consistent with an osteodont histotype. However, L. carlsi and C. maderi also exhibit significant morphological differences, showing Leonodus a typical diplodont tooth morphology with a linguo-labially elongated base, that contrast with Celtiberina’s teeth that show a single conical cusp curved lingually with a week developed flat base mesio- distally extended, perhaps reflecting distant relationship. These data are compatible with a pre-Devonian diversification of the two main tooth types traditionally recognised in Palaeozoic sharks (i.e., “cladodont” vs “diplodont”). Finally, our data demonstrate that existing dental classification schemes based on styles of vascularisation are over-simplified, especially when Palaeozoic taxa are considered.
The lower (but not lowermost) part of the Upper Cretaceous Anaipadi Formation of the Trichinopoly Group in the area between Kulatur, Saradamangalam and Anaipadi, in the south-western part of the Cauvery Basin in southeast India yielded rich inoceramid and ammonite faunas. The ammonites: Mesopuzosia gaudama (Forbes, 1846), Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846), Onitschoceras sp., Kossmaticeras (Kossmaticeras) theobaldianum (Stoliczka, 1865), Lewesiceras jimboi (Kossmat, 1898), Placenticeras kaffrarium Etheridge, 1904, and Pseudoxybeloceras (Schlueterella) sp., are characteristic of the Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Zone. The absence of Peroniceras (P.) dravidicum (Kossmat, 1895) indicates the presence of only lower part of this zone, referred to the nominative Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Subzone at the localities studied. The inoceramids present are Tethyoceramus madagascariensis (Heinz, 1933) and Cremnoceramus deformis erectus (Meek, 1877), recorded for the first time from the region. The latter dates the studied interval as early early Coniacian, and allows, for the first time, direct chronostratigraphic dating of the Tethyoceramus madagascariensis Zone, and consequently also of the Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Subzone. As inoceramids occur in the middle part of the ammonite-rich interval, the Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Subzone may be as old as latest Turonian and not younger than early early Coniacian. The base of the Coniacian lies in the lower, but not lowermost part of the Anaipadi Formation. Both inoceramids and ammonites represent taxa known from Madagascar and South Africa.
The Cao Bang Basin is the northernmost of the basins related to the Cao Bang-Tien Yen Fault Zone in northern Vietnam. The basin is filled with a thick series of continental deposits. However, the exact age of the sedimentary basin infill has been under discussion for a long time. Because of new published data, the authors have decided to revisit this basin. Palynological data has allowed us to assign the Cao Bang Basin infill to the Lower Oligocene PC1 complex of the Shangcun Fm. (southern China). Among the saccate grains of gymnosperms, the domination of Cathaya and Pinus was observed, whereas angiosperms are represented by Carya, Celtis, Hammamelidaceae, Ulmus and also Pterocarya, Quercus, the Castanea–Castanopsis–Lithocarpus group, and the Loranthaceae. Among pteridophytes occur Laevigatosporites, Osmundaceae, and Pteris. The sedimentological features of the Cao Bang Basin are distinct from those of other basins from the Cao Bang-Tien Yen Fault Zone. The basin is filled with a wide variety of clastic deposits, from some of coarse-grained, alluvial-fan origin, through sandy beds of fluvial origin up to fine, organic-rich lacustrine deposits. The coarse-grained lithofacies are built of clasts derived mainly from local sources. The sandstones from the basin equally are submature or immature. They contain a lot of lithoclasts, the composition of which depends on the sample location within the basin. The potential source area is composed of older sedimentary units and of granitic rocks. The geochemical samples studied reflect the geochemical composition of silicic source rocks with only a minor contribution of basic components. The succession that fills the basin is interpreted as a typical fill for relatively long-lasting evolving half-graben or strike-slip basins. Moreover, the basin is partly occupied by a subsequent present-day sedimentary basin of Quaternary age.
An unusual 6–8 cm layer of prismatic cartilage and matrix containing some 8,800 teeth, coprolites, incomplete occipital spines, and denticles of Orthacanthus platypternus (Cope, 1883) occurs in the lower Permian (Artinskian) Craddock Bonebed in Texas, USA. It is the only species of shark present in the Clear Fork Group except for three worn Xenacanthus Beyrich, 1848 occipital spine fragments and two teeth of ?Lissodus (Polyacrodus) zideki (Johnson, 1981) (Hybodontoidei), both being the first occurrences in this unit. Analysis of measurements of teeth with complete bases randomly selected from 3,050 initially available teeth failed to reveal the presence of sexual dimorphism or the discrete presence of juveniles as expected, based on an independent study which identified the presence of Orthacanthus juvenile occipital spines. A few highly symmetrical small teeth are present, which had not been previously observed in the Texas lower Permian. They may be symphyseals and restricted only to juveniles. Other unusual teeth include germinal teeth and deformed teeth, both of which occur in the Clear Fork and underlying Wichita groups. One tooth displays an apparent example of the equivalent of an “enamel pearl” on one of its cusps. The most unusual teeth are those that appear to have undergone various stages of resorption. Only the lingual margin of the base is affected in which the apical button is resorbed to varying degrees until only the labial margin with the basal tubercle and the three cusps are all that remain. If the teeth were undergoing resorption, then the perplexing problem is why the apical button is resorbed and not the superjacent basal tubercle. Other vertebrate remains include palaeoniscoid scales and teeth and unidentified tetrapod bone fragments, jaw fragments, and teeth. Rare fragments of bones (scales?) bear a “comb edge” which have not been previously observed in the Texas lower Permian.
We describe a new echinoid assemblage, composed of specimens of Bolbaster sp., Cyclaster danicus (Schlüter, 1897), Diplodetus vistulensis (Kongiel, 1950) and Linthia? sp. in a distinctive phosphatic preservation, from the so-called Greensand, a marly glauconitic sandstone horizon at the base of the Danian succession in the Kazimierz Dolny area (central Poland). This assemblage presumably is of early Danian age, with Cyclaster danicus occurring in the lower Danian of Denmark and southern Sweden. The specimens are preserved as internal moulds, composed of phosphatised glauconitic sandstone, occasionally with some test material adhering. The genesis of these moulds involved the following steps: (1) infilling of tests of dead echinoids with glauconitic sand; (2) penetration of the infills by coelobiotic deposit-feeding organisms that produced burrows along the inner test surface; (3) early-diagenetic cementation of infills by calcium phosphate; and (4) exhumation and intraformational reworking of specimens, leading to abrasion, fragmentation and loss of test material in some individuals. Co-occurring are unphosphatised moulds of Echinocorys ex gr. depressa (von Eichwald, 1866) and Pseudogibbaster cf. depressus (Kongiel in Kongiel and Matwiejewówna, 1937), which may represent a younger (middle to late Danian) assemblage. Additionally, the presence of derived late Maastrichtian echinoids, e.g., Temnocidaris (Stereocidaris) ex gr. herthae (Schlüter, 1892), Pleurosalenia bonissenti (Cotteau, 1866) and Hemicara pomeranum Schlüter, 1902, is confirmed for the Greensand, based on new material and re- examination of previously recorded specimens. In summary, members of three echinoid assemblages of different age and preservation occur together in the Greensand. Our results are compatible with former interpretations of this unit as a condensed, transgressive lag with mixed faunas of different age and provenance. However, they are incompatible with the hypothesis that phosphatised Danian fossils preserved in the Greensand are derived from a facies equivalent, now gone, of the lower Danian Cerithium Limestone in eastern Denmark, because all moulds are composed of phosphatised glauconitic sandstone that is utterly different from the calcareous dinocyst-dominated, fine crystalline matrix of the Cerithium Limestone.
During fieldwork in the early 1990s at the then still active quarry near Nasiłów, on the left bank of the River Vistula (Wisła), accompanied by Professor Andrzej Radwański, some lobster remains were collected. A fragmentary anterior portion of a decapod crustacean carapace, recovered from a level about 2 m below the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, in a siliceous chalk unit locally referred to as ‘opoka’, constitutes the oldest record of the thaumastocheliform genus Dinochelus Ahyong, Chan and Bouchet, 2010, D. radwanskii sp. nov. The other, more complete, individual is from c. 3 m above the K/Pg boundary, coming from marly gaizes or ‘siwak’; this is ascribed to a new species of Hoploparia M’Coy, 1849, H. nasilowensis sp. nov., the first to be recorded from Danian (lower Paleocene) strata. Although both ‘opoka’ and ‘siwak’ facies in the Nasiłów area are very rich in diverse biota, including some brachyurans, no macruran remains had so far been recorded from the region.
This malacological analysis was conducted at a site with peat and calcareous tufas in Łapsze Niżne, Podhale (southern Poland). The study was carried out in 6 main and several complementary sections, in which 37 mollusc species were recognized represented by almost 11 000 specimens. The study enabled the reconstruction of environmental changes during the accumulation of the Holocene deposits (from the Boreal Phase till present). Conclusions drawn from these reconstructions were compared with results of malacological and palynological studies from other sites in Podhale. As a result, regional environmental reconstructions for the Holocene of the area were made. The specific composition, ecological structure and succession of molluscan assemblages from Łapsze Niżne indicate a significant role for local factors, thus demonstrating the variability of environmental conditions within a geographic region.
The decapod fauna from the Badenian (middle Miocene) deposits of western Ukraine comprises in total 31 taxa: 20 species, 9 taxa left in open nomenclature, and 2 determined at family level. Thirteen of these taxa are reported for the first time from the territory of Ukraine. Among them are the first records of Trapezia glaessneri Müller, 1976 in the Fore-Carpathian Basin and Pachycheles sp. in Paratethys. One taxon (Petrolisthes sp. A) probably represents a new species. The occurrence of this significant decapod fauna is restricted almost exclusively to the Upper Badenian (i.e., early Serravallian) coralgal reefs of the Ternopil Beds. The taxonomic composition of the decapods indicates that the Late Badenian depositional environment was a shallow marine basin dominated by reefs that developed in warm-to-tropical waters of oceanic salinity. The decapod assemblage from the Ternopil Beds is similar in its taxonomic composition to numerous decapod faunules from fossil reefs of Eocene to Miocene age from the Mediterranean realm and of Miocene age from Paratethys. In contrast, decapod remains are very scarce in Badenian siliciclastic deposits (Mikolaiv Beds) and are represented by the most resistant skeletal elements, i.e., dactyli and fixed fingers. This scarcity was caused by the high-energy environment, with frequent episodes of redeposition, which disintegrated and abraded the decapod remains.
The long-ranging Early to Middle Triassic coniform conodont form-genus Cornudina Hirschmann occurs abundantly in the Anisian of NW Turkey, Northern Tethys. Although suggested to represent the P1 element of an apparatus of the Order Ozarkodinida Dzik, questions concerning the apparatus of Cornudina remain. A description of the probable phylogenetic trends in the P1 elements of Cornudina is attempted and the role of the form-genera Ketinella Gedik and Kamuellerella Gedik, as the alternative ramiform skeletal elements in the Cornudina multi-element apparatus, is investigated. The newly described, Gedikella quadrata gen. nov., sp. nov., is an S element, Kamuellerella rectangularis sp. nov., is either an S3 or an S4 element, and Ketinella goermueshi sp. nov., is an M element.
The Silurian fishes from north-western Hunan, China are characterised by the earliest known galeaspids Dayongaspis Pan and Zeng, 1985 and Konoceraspis Pan, 1992, and the earliest known antiarch Shimenolepis Wang J.-Q., 1991, as well as rich sinacanth fin spines. Shimenolepis from Lixian County in north-western Hunan, which was dated as the Telychian (late Llandovery), has long been regarded as the oldest representative of the placoderms in the world. As such, in addition to eastern Yunnan and the Lower Yangtze Region, north-western Hunan represents another important area in South China that yields important fossil material for the research of early vertebrates and related stratigraphy. Here we summarise the Silurian fishes known in north-western Hunan so far, and classify them into three vertebrate assemblages (i.e., the Wentang, Maoshan, and Yangtze assemblages). Based on the updated Silurian vertebrate and stratigraphic databases, the Silurian fish-bearing strata in north-western Hunan can be subdivided into the Rongxi, Huixingshao, and Xiaoxi formations in ascending chronological order, which can be correlated with the Lower Red Beds, the Upper Red Beds, and the Ludlow Red Beds in South China, respectively. A new look at the Silurian strata in Lixian suggests that the age of Shimenolepis is late Ludlow rather than late Llandovery as previously suggested. The research on Silurian fishes and biostratigraphy in north-western Hunan not only provides morphological data of early vertebrates, but also offers new palaeoichthyological evidence for the subdivision, correlation, and age assignment of the Silurian marine red beds in South China. The establishment of a related high-precision Silurian stratigraphic framework in north-western Hunan will help to elucidate the temporal and spatial distribution of Silurian fossil fishes, deepen the understanding of the evolution of early vertebrates, and unravel the coevolution between Silurian vertebrates and the palaeoenvironment.
Campyloprion Eastman, 1902 is a chondrichthyan having an arched symphyseal tooth whorl similar to that of Helicoprion Karpinsky, 1899, but less tightly coiled. The holotype of Campyloprion annectans Eastman, 1902, the type species of Campyloprion, is of unknown provenance, but is presumed to be from the Pennsylvanian of North America. Campyloprion ivanovi (Karpinsky, 1922) has been described from the Gzhelian of Russia. A partial symphyseal tooth whorl, designated as Campyloprion cf. C. ivanovi, is reported from the Missourian Tinajas Member of the Atrasado Formation of Socorro County, New Mexico, USA. Partial tooth whorls from the Virgilian Finis Shale and Jacksboro Limestone Members of the Graham Formation of northern Texas, USA, are designated as Campyloprion sp. Two partial tooth whorls from the Gzhelian of Russia that were previously referred to C. ivanovi are designated as Campyloprion cf. C. annectans. The age of Toxoprion lecontei (Dean, 1898), from Nevada, USA, is corrected from the Carboniferous to the early Permian. An alternative interpretation of the holotype of T. lecontei is presented, resulting in a reversal of its anterior-to-posterior orientation. The genera Helicoprion, Campyloprion, and Shaktauites Tchuvashov, 2001 can be distinguished by their different spiral angles.
The Cleveland Shale fauna represents a unique view of the time after a major Devonian extinction event (Frasnian–Famenian) with the recovery of arthrodires (Placodermi) best represented by this most specious North American fauna. This time was followed by an additional event (Hangenberg Biocrisis) leading to the extinction of arthrodires (and all other placoderms). An understanding of the diversity and interrelationships of North American arthrodires can aid our understanding of this critical time in vertebrate evolution. A new aspinothoracid arthrodire Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Late Devonian of northern Ohio, U.S.A., which adds to our knowledge of this group. It provides a point of comparison to other members of the fauna whose interrelationships are poorly known. A phylogenetic analysis supports an assignment of Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. among the aspinothoracid arthrodires. This work has drawn attention to the continued need for descriptive and phylogenetic analyses of this unique fauna. Decades old species descriptions need revision along with preparation and description of new taxa. The work on Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. here is one step in that process.
Placoid and polyodontode scales of stem chondrichthyans have been found in the early Lochkovian “Ditton Group” of the Brown Clee Hill district, Shropshire, England and at Talgarth, south Wales. One of the forms is assigned to a new species of Altholepis Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1997, a genus already recognised from Lochkovian shallow marine deposits in Celtiberia, Spain and the Northwest Territories, Canada as well as the type locality in Podolia, Ukraine. Altholepis salopensis sp. nov. is based on small polyodontode scales with typically three to eight high odontodes; the scale form was previously considered to belong to acanthodian “Nostolepis” robusta (Brotzen, 1934). The structure of other scales formerly assigned to “Nostolepis” robusta has led us to erect a new genus Jolepis for this scale form, which differs from Altholepis in lacking an ordered layout of odontodes. Jolepis robusta (Brotzen, 1934), originally (and possibly still) considered to be an acanthodian, is also known from the Baltic countries, Russia, and northern Germany (ex erratic limestones). Scales of acanthodian Parexus recurvus Agassiz, 1845, and/or possibly from the stem chondrichthyan Seretolepis elegans Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 (scales of these two taxa are barely distinguishable), and of stem chondrichthyan Polymerolepis whitei Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 are also present. Altholepis, Jolepis gen. nov., Seretolepis Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 and Polymerolepis Karatajūtė- Talimaa, 1968 are found in marine deposits elsewhere; the British occurrence of these taxa adds to the debate on the sedimentological origins of the Lower Old Red Sandstone deposits in the Welsh Borderland. The geographic range of several early sharks is now known to extend around the Old Red Sandstone continent and beyond.
Fourteen symposia on early/lower vertebrates have taken place over the last 50 years, usually at about four year intervals. An average 60 participants have taken part at these symposia, with over one hundred occasionally. The results of the symposia have been published in proceedings. The symposia started honoring E. A:son Stensiö and E. Jarvik. Honors were taken up at the 11th symposium in Uppsala again. Since the 13th symposium a Stensiö award is also given to young researchers in the field.
Material of tesseraspids (Tesseraspidiformes) is reported from the uppermost Severnaya Zemlya Formation (Lochkovian, Lower Devonian) of the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, in the Russian Arctic, where it is associated with other vertebrate remains, including corvaspids, acanthodians, and large but rare specimens of osteostracans. The tesseraspid material is not abundant, and most often preserved as a “patchwork” of bony platelets (tesserae), except for a few partly articulated specimens. We redescribe the holotype of Tesseraspis mosaica Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1983, whose head carapace is preserved as a flattened tube of adjacent tesserae. This material is compared to the already published tesseraspid taxa, i.e., T. tessellata Wills, 1935, T. toombsi Tarlo, 1964, T. mutabilis (Brotzen, 1934), T. oervigi Tarlo, 1964 emend. Dineley and Loeffler, 1976, T. denisoni Tarlo, 1964, and T. talimaae Tarlo, 1965. All species are based upon rare and incomplete material, as no head carapaces associated with trunk and tail are known, and so, the intraspecific variability is also unknown. Distinction between “species” is based on the detail of the superficial sculpture of the tesserae of the head carapaces, which is unsatisfactory. It is concluded that only four of the nominal species can be retained. A review of all other known tessellated pteraspidomorphs indicates that our knowledge of tessellated heterostracans is currently insufficient to support a meaningful classification.
The Lower Devonian ‘Placoderm Sandstone’ in the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) is filled with abundant impressions of disarticulated vertebrate remains. The only acanthodian macroremains named to date are fin spines of Machaeracanthus polonicus Gürich. Fin spine impressions in slabs from the Winna Formation (Emsian) at Podłazie Hill (near Daleszyce) in the southern HCM, and also the Barcza Formation (?Lochkovian) at Barcza Quarry, Miedziana Góra Conglomerate (?Lochkovian), Gruchawka, and Zagórze Formation (middle–upper Emsian) at Bukowa Mountain in the northern HCM, reposited in the University of Warsaw, Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute, Warsaw, and Natural History Museum, London collections, have been cast and studied in order to better document this poorly known taxon. As noted in other Machaeracanthus species, we have found that M. polonicus has two different morphotypes of spines, which abut lengthwise to form a pair of spines. Our investigations show that the fin spine assemblage includes Onchus overathensis as well as M. polonicus, and probably another undetermined acanthodian. The affinities of O. overathensis are reassessed. It is here considered to be a diplacanthiform, and reassigned to the genus Striacanthus, as S. overathensis. Acanthodian scapulocoracoids have also been identified, as well as tightly spiralled toothwhorls which could be from an acanthodian.
The shallow-marine carbonate deposits of the Reuchenette Formation (Kimmeridgian, Upper Jurassic) in northwestern Switzerland and adjacent France yield highly diverse bivalve associations, but only rarely contain remains of pinnid bivalves. The three occurring taxa Pinna (Cyrtopinna) socialis d’Orbigny, 1850, Stegoconcha granulata (J. Sowerby, 1822) and Stegoconcha obliquata (Deshayes, 1839) have been revised. A lectotype for Pinna (C.) socialis was designated and the taxon is assigned herein to P. (Cyrtopinna) Mörch, 1853, the first record of the subgenus from the Jurassic. A brief review of Stegoconcha Böhm, 1907 revealed two species groups within the genus. Species close to the type species S. granulata are characterized by a nearly smooth anterior shell, followed posteriorly by deep radial furrows and rows of pustules covering the dorsal flank. Another group comprises radially ribbed species related to S. neptuni (Goldfuss, 1837). It includes among others the Paleogene species S. faxensis (Ravn, 1902), extending the known range of Stegoconcha from the Middle Jurassic into the Paleogene. The paper suggests a relationship between Stegoconcha and the Cretaceous Plesiopinna Amano, 1956, with S. obliquata as a possible intermediate species leading to Plesiopinna during the Early Cretaceous. Furthermore, a possible relationship between Stegoconcha and Atrina Gray, 1842 is discussed.
Triceratium barbadense Greville, 1861a, T. brachiatum Brightwell, 1856, T. inconspicuum Greville, 1861b and T. kanayae Fenner, 1984a, are among the most common diatoms reported worldwide from lower to middle Eocene biosiliceous sediments. Due to complicated nomenclatural histories, however, they are often confused. A morphometric analysis performed herein indicates that T. brachiatum is conspecific with T. inconspicuum, and that both were previously often misidentified as T. barbadense. Triceratium barbadense sensu stricto is a distinct species similar to Triceratium castellatum West, 1860. Triceratium brachiatum and T. kanayae are transferred herein to a new genus, Fenneria, for which a close phylogenetic relationship with Medlinia Sims, 1998 is proposed. A review of the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of Fenneria shows that the best constrained records of its occurrences are found at DSDP Site 338, and ODP Sites 1051 and 1260. The ages of the base (B) and top (T) of each species’ stratigraphic range are calibrated here to the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale either directly or inferred via correlation with dinocyst biostratigraphy. Latitudinal diachroneity of ~7 million years is documented for F. brachiata, which disappears earlier in tropical and mid-latitude sites than in the northern high latitudes. These observations, coupled with a preliminary compilation of the Chron C20n taxonomic composition of pelagic diatom assemblages for Sites 338, 1051 and 1260, indicate that diatoms diversified palaeobiogeographically considerably earlier than the Eocene−Oligocene Transition, as commonly believed. This study also emphasizes the importance of the detailed examination of specimens from both museum collections and deep-sea cores as a step toward enhancing the utility of Palaeogene diatoms in palaeoceanographic and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
The Upper Greensand Formation, mostly capped by the Chalk, crops out on the edges of a broad, dissected plateau in Devon, west Dorset and south Somerset and has an almost continuous outcrop that runs from the Isle of Purbeck to the Vale of Wardour in south Wiltshire. The Formation is well exposed in cliffs in east Devon and the Isle of Purbeck, but is poorly exposed inland. It comprises sandstones and calcarenites with laterally and stratigraphically variable amounts of carbonate cement, glauconite and chert. The sedimentology and palaeon- tology indicate deposition in marginal marine-shelf environments that were at times subject to strong tidal and wave-generated currents. The formation of the Upper Greensand successions in the region was influenced by penecontemporaneous movements on major fault zones, some of which are sited over E-W trending Variscan thrusts in the basement rocks and, locally, on minor faults. Comparison of the principal sedimentary breaks in the succession with the sequence boundaries derived from world-wide sea-level curves suggests that local tec- tonic events mask the effects of any eustatic changes in sea level. The preserved fauna is unevenly distributed, both laterally and stratigraphically. Bivalves, gastropods and echinoids are common at some horizons but are not age-diagnostic. Ammonites are common at a few stratigraphically narrowly defined horizons, but are rare or absent throughout most of the succession. As a result, the age of parts of the succession is still poorly known
The Maastrichtian sediments of northern Iraq are rich in larger benthic foraminifera. Among them, the genus Loftusia is well-known one because of its significant palaeogeographic distribution across the Mediterranean and Middle East. In this study, observations of abnormal test shapes, species recognition criteria and endoskeleton characteristics of Loftusia are discussed, based on the new material from north-eastern Iraq. The following species of Loftusia are described: Loftusia elongata Cox, L. persica Brady, Loftusia morgani Douvillé, L. anatolica Meriç, L. matsumarui Meriç and Görmüs, L. minor B Cox, L. ketini B Meriç and L. kahtaensis Meriç, Loftusia minor A Cox, L. oktayi Meriç and L. baykali Meriç. The predominant species are Loftusia elongata, L. morgani and L. baykali. Skewed abnormal individuals and epidermal parts of the endoskeleton structure are also interesting aspects to note. Quantitative data obtained for Loftusia allow us to better understand and interpret species identification criteria, abnormal occurrences and the endoskeleton structure.
In the Polish sector of the Magura Nappe have long been known and exploited carbonate mineral waters, saturated with carbon dioxide, known as the “shchava (szczawa)”. These waters occur mainly in the Krynica Subunit of the Magura Nappe, between the Dunajec and Poprad rivers, close to the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). The origin of these waters is still not clear, this applies to both “volcanic” and “metamorphic” hypotheses. Bearing in mind the case found in the Szczawa tectonic window and our geological and geochemical studies we suggest that the origin of the carbon dioxide may be linked with the thermal/pressure alteration of organic matter of the Oligocene deposits from the Grybów Unit. These deposits, exposed in several tectonic windows of the Magura Nappe, are characterized by the presence of highly matured organic matter – the origin of the hydrocarbon accumulations. This is supported by the present-day state of organic geochemistry studies of the Carpathian oil and gas bed rocks. In our opinion origin of the carbon-dioxide was related to the southern, deep buried periphery of the Carpathian Oil and Gas Province. The present day distribution of the carbonated mineral water springs has been related to the post-orogenic uplift and erosion of the Outer (flysch) Carpathians.
The Telbesmi Formation, at the northern margin of the Arabian Plate, Turkey, is composed of alternating darkbrown, pinky-brown fluvial arkosic sandstone/mudstones with thin-bedded cherty limestones and channel conglomerates. The formation contains rare and poorly diversified trace fossils. The siltstone/sandstone beds of levels 1 and 2 of the formation yielded, however, a moderately diverse assemblage composed of: Cochlichnus isp., Palaeophycus isp., Planolites beverleyensis, Teichichnus isp. and ?Treptichnus rectangularis. This assemblage, made up of traces left by deposit feeding organisms, represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies. Treptichnus rectangularis and Palaeophycus isp., of the assemblage, can be considered markers for the base of the Cambrian in southeast Turkey.