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Number of results: 203
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Abstract

This paper describes the arithmetic blocks based on Montgomery Multiplier (MM), which reduces complexity, gives lower power dissipation and higher operating frequency. The main objective in designing these arithmetic blocks is to use modified full adder structure and carry save adder structure that can be implemented in algorithm based MM circuit. The conventional full adder design acts as a benchmark for comparison, the second is the modified Boolean equation for full adder and third design is the design of full adder consisting of two XOR gate and a 2-to-1 Multiplexer. Besides Universal gates such as NOR gate and NAND gate, full adder circuits are used to further improve the speed of the circuit. The MM circuit is evaluated based on different parameters such as operating frequency, power dissipation and area of occupancy in FPGA board. The schematic designs of the arithmetic components along with the MM architecture are constructed using Quartus II tool, while the simulation is done using Model sim for verification of circuit functionality which has shown improvement on the full adder design with two XOR gate and one 2-to-1 Multiplexer implementation in terms of power dissipation, operating frequency and area.
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Abstract

This article presents the results of the research of noiseimmunity of wireless communication systems using signals that are formed on the basis of eight-position quadrature-amplitude modulation (8-QAM) and eight-position amplitude modulation of many components (8-AMMC). The research was conducted using simulation of a wireless communication system, built using a detector, implemented on the basis of a phase locked loop. The influence of phase locked loop parameters on the detection quality of these signals in the condition of the interference in the communication channel was researched, and a comparative analysis of the noise immunity of wireless communication systems using these signals was carried out.
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Abstract

In this paper, we estimate the upper limit of the transmission data rate in airborne ultrasonic communications, under condition of the optimal power allocation. The presented method is based on frequency response of a channel in case of single-path LOS propagation under different climatic conditions and AWGN background noise model, and it can be easily extended to the case of frequency-dependent noise. The obtained results go beyond the discrete distances for which experimental SNR values were available, and are more accurate than the previous calculations in the literature, due to the inclusion of the channel frequency response and its changes over the distance. The impact of air temperature, relative humidity and the atmospheric pressure on the channel capacity is also investigated. The presented results can serve as a reference during the design of airborne ultrasonic communication systems operating in the far-field region.
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Abstract

In this paper, we present some useful results related with the sampling theorem and the reconstruction formula. The first of them regards a relation existing between bandwidths of interpolating functions different from a perfectreconstruction one and the bandwidth of the latter. Furthermore, we prove here that two non-identical interpolating functions can have the same bandwidths if and only if their (same) bandwidth is a multiple of the bandwidth of an original unsampled signal. The next result shows that sets of sampling points of two nonidentical (but not necessarily interpolating) functions possessing different bandwidths are unique for all sampling periods smaller or equal to a given period (calculated in a theorem provided). These results are completed by the following one: in case of two different signals possessing the same bandwidth but different spectra shapes, their sets of sampling points must differ from each other.
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Abstract

The paper analyzes the prospects for the formation and implementation of digital data transmission technologies on railways of Kazakhstan, taking into account the potential for the development of high-speed railway transport (HSRWT), as well as new approaches for solving the development problems of advanced automated dispatch control systems (ADCS). It was shown that the solution of these problems is possible by automatization of the train traffic coordination based on the use of the potential of the GPRS data transmission technology. The work further developed models and algorithms used in ADCS of the railway transport. There has been carried out the formalization of the tasks of navigation data transmission for ADCS and for the subsystems of the railway rolling stock movement coordination, including HSRWT using GPRS data transmission technology. Also, the article describes a modernized algorithm for simulation of the GPRS channels operation in ADCS. The proposed algorithm differs from the existing ones by the ability to make predictive estimates for determination of the railway rolling stock location. Also, the developed algorithm provides opportunities for coordination of the trains movement, taking into account the optimization of the GPRS resources use.
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Abstract

Network on chip (NoC) is presented as a promising solution to face off the growing up of the data exchange in the multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC). However, the traditional NoC faces two main problems: the bandwidth and the energy consumption. To face off these problems, a new technology in MPSoC, namely, optical network-on-chip (ONoC) has been introduced which it uses the optical communication to guaranty a high performance in communication between cores. In addition, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is exploited in ONoC to reach a high rate of bandwidth. Nevertheless, the transparency nature of the ONoC components induce crosstalk noise to the optical signals, which it has a direct effect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) then decrease the performance of the ONoC. In this paper, we proposed a new system to control these impairments in the network in order to detect and monitor crosstalk noise in WDM-based ONoC. Furthermore, the crosstalk monitoring system is a distributed hardware system designed and test with the different optical components according the various network topology used in ONoC. The register-transfer level (RTL) hardware design and implementation of this system can result in high reliability, scalability and efficiency with running time less than 20 ms.
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Abstract

Automation of data processing of contactless diagnostics (detection) of the technical condition of the majority of nodes and aggregates of railway transport (RWT) minimizes the damage from failures of these systems in operating modes. This becomes possible due to the rapid detection of serious defects at the stage of their origin. Basically, in practice, the control of the technical condition of the nodes and aggregates of the RWT is carried out during scheduled repairs. It is not always possible to identify incipient defects. Consequently, it is not always possible to warn personnel (machinists, repairmen, etc.) of significant damage to the RWT systems until their complete failure. The difficulties of obtaining diagnostic information is that there is interdependence between the main nodes of the RWT. This means that if physical damage occurs at any of the RWT nodes, in other nodes there can also occur malfunctions. As the main way to improve the efficiency of state detection of the nodes and aggregates of RWT, we see the direction of giving the adaptability property for an automated data processing system from various contactless diagnostic information removal systems. The global purpose can be achieved, in particular, through the use of machine learning methods and failure recognition (recognition objects). In order to improve the operational reliability and service life of the main nodes and aggregates of RWT, there are proposed an appropriate model and algorithm of machine learning of the operator control system of nodes and aggregates. It is proposed to use the Shannon normalized entropy measure and the Kullback-Leibler distance information criterion as a criterion of the learning effectiveness of the automated detection system and operator node state control of RWT. The article describes the application of the proposed method on the example of an automatic detection system (ADS) of the state of a traction motor of an electric locomotive. There are given the test data of the model and algorithm in the MATLAB environment.
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Abstract

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting humans. Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer; and early diagnosis is extremely vital in curing the disease. So far, the human knowledge in this field is very limited, thus, developing a mechanism capable of identifying the disease early on can save lives, reduce intervention and cut unnecessary costs. In this paper, the researchers developed a new learning technique to classify skin lesions, with the purpose of observing and identifying the presence of melanoma. This new technique is based on a convolutional neural network solution with multiple configurations; where the researchers employed an International Skin Imaging Collaboration (ISIC) dataset. Optimal results are achieved through a convolutional neural network composed of 14 layers. This proposed system can successfully and reliably predict the correct classification of dermoscopic lesions with 97.78% accuracy.
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Abstract

Speech enhancement objective is to improve the noisy speech signals for human perception. The intention of speech enhancement algorithm is to improve the performance of the communication, when the signal is occluded by noise. The quality and intelligibility of speech is reduced because of the presence of background noise. There are various adaptive filtering algorithms for speech enhancement. The existing least mean square and normalised least mean square algorithms have the problem of choosing the step size that guarantees the stability of the algorithm. To overcome this problem, we focus on speech enhancement by amended adaptive filtering. The proposed algorithm follows blind source separation strategy using adaptive filtering. Comparison of existing adaptive filtering algorithms with proposed algorithm justifies the amendment incorporated in this paper. Taking the objective criteria into account the algorithms has been tested for segmental signal to noise ratio (SegSNR), segmental mean square error (SegMSE), signal to noise ratio and mean square error. The proposed algorithm can be used for hand-free cell phone, hearing aids and teleconferencing systems.
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Abstract

Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetic disorder that results in nyctalopia and its progression leads to complete loss of vision. The analysis and the study of retinal images are necessary, so as to help ophthalmologist in early detection of the retinitis pigmentosa. In this paper fundus images and Optical Coherence Tomography images are comprehensively analyzed, so as to obtain the various morphological features that characterize the retinitis pigmentosa. Pigment deposits, important trait of RP is investigated. Degree of darkness and entropy are the features used for analysis of PD. The darkness and entropy of the PD is compared with the different regions of the fundus image which is used to detect the pigments in the retinal image. Also the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by using various performance metrics. The performance metrics are calculated for all 120 images of RIPS dataset. The performance metrics such as sensitivity, sensibility, specificity, accuracy, F-score, equal error rate, conformity coefficient, Jaccard’s coefficient, dice coefficient, universal quality index were calculated as 0.72, 0.96, 0.97, 0.62, 0.12, 0.09, 0.59, 0.45 and 0.62, respectively.
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Abstract

Digital speech copyright protection and forgery identification are the prevalent issues in our advancing digital world. In speech forgery, voiced part of the speech signal is copied and pasted to a specific location which alters the meaning of the speech signal. Watermarking can be used to safe guard the copyrights of the owner. To detect copy-move forgeries a transform domain watermarking method is proposed. In the proposed method, watermarking is achieved through Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) rule. Hash bits are also inserted in watermarked voice segments to detect Copy-Move Forgery (CMF) in speech signals. Proposed method is evaluated on two databases and achieved good imperceptibility. It exhibits robustness in detecting the watermark and forgeries against signal processing attacks such as resample, low-pass filtering, jittering, compression and cropping. The proposed work contributes for forensics analysis in speech signals. This proposed work also compared with the some of the state-of-art methods.
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Abstract

The MDCT and IntMDCT Algorithm is widely utilized is Audio coding. By lifting scheme or rounding operation IntegerMDCT is evolved from Modified Discrete Cosine Transform. This method acquire the properties of MDCT and contribute excelling invertiblity and good spectral mean .In this paper we discuss about the audio codec like AAC and FLAC using MDCT and Integer MDCT algorithm and to find which algorithm shows better Compression Ratio(CR).The confines of this task is to hybriding lossy and lossless audio codec with diminished bit rate but with finer sound quality. Certainly the quality of the audio is figure out by Subjective and Objective testing which is in terms of MOS (Mean opinion square), ABx and some of the hearing aid testing methodology like PEAQ(Perceptual Evaluation Audio Quality) and ODG(Objective Difference Grade)is followed. Execution measure, that is Compression Ratio(CR) and Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is approximated.
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Abstract

This paper presents a novel complementary CPWfed slotted microstrip patch antenna for operation at 2.4 GHz, 5.2 GHz and 6.3 GHz frequencies. The primary structure consists of the complementary split ring resonator slots on a patch and the design is fabricated on FR-4 epoxy substrate with substrate thickness of 1.6 mm. The described structure lacks the presence of a ground plane and makes use of a number of circular complementary SRRs along with rectangular slots on the radiating patch. The structure provides a wide bandwidth of around 390 MHz, 470 MHz and 600 MHz at the three bands with return losses of -11.5 dB, -24.3996dB and -24.4226 dB, respectively. The inclusion of the rectangular slots in the CSRR based slot antenna with stairecase structure improved the performance with respect to return loss.
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Abstract

A wideband antenna with dual band characteristic at 5.33/14.3GHz with resonating frequencies for wireless applications is presented. The strategy of the design is to introduce multiband in antenna band. Bandwidth of the antenna increases by embedding annular ring on the radiating patch and four bands are achieved by introducing coupling gap between the patches. Surface current distribution is analyzed at different resonating frequencies for understanding the radiation mechanism and effect of annular ring. The antenna parameters such as return loss, radiation pattern, gain, VSWR and group delay are discussed. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed dual band antenna at lower resonant frequency is 12.7% (simulated) and 9.8 % (measured) whereas at upper resonant frequency is 15.3 % (simulated) and 13.97 % (measured).
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Abstract

This paper presents that the effect of single aperture size of metallic enclosure on electrical shielding effectiveness (ESE) at 0 – 1 GHz frequency range has been investigated by using both Robinson’s analytical formulation and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods that are multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks and a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN). All results including measurement have been compared each other in terms of aperture geometry of metallic enclosure. The geometry of single aperture varies from square to rectangular shape while the open area of aperture is fixed. It has been observed that network structure of MLP 3-40-1 in modeling with ANN modeled with fewer neurons in the sense of overlapping of faults and data and modeled accordingly. In contrast, the RBFNN 3-150-1 is the other detection that the network structure is modeled with more neurons and more. It can be seen from the same network-structured MLP and RBFNN that the MLP modeled better. In this paper, the impact of dimension of rectangular aperture on shielding performance by using RBFNN and MLP network model with ANN has been studied, as a novelty.
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Abstract

This paper is devoted to a detailed experimentally based analysis of applicability of vector network analyzers for measuring impedance of surface mount inductors with and without DC bias. The measurements are made using custommade bias tees and a test fixture with an ordinary vector network analyzer. The main attention in the analysis is focused on measurement accuracy of an impedance of surface mount inductors. Measurement results obtained with a vector network analyzer will also be compared to those obtained by using an impedance analyzer based on auto-balancing bridge method.
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Abstract

This paper proposes an advanced routing method in the purpose of increasing IoT routing device’s power-efficiency, which allows to centralize routing tables computing as well as to push loading, related to routing tables computation, towards the Cloud environment at all. We introduced a phased solution for the formulated task. Generally, next steps were performed: stated requirements for the system with Cloud routing, proposed possible solution, and developed the whole system’s structure. For a proper study of the efficiency, the experiment was conducted using the developed system’s prototype for real-life cases, each represents own cluster size (several topologies by each size), used sizes are: 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27 and 29. Expectable results for this research – decrease the time of cluster’s reaction on topology changes (delay, needed to renew routing tables), which improves system’s adaptivity.
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Abstract

Most of the developing countries economy largely depends on the agriculture. More than half of the population rely on agriculture related activities for their survival. In spite of dependency on agriculture, the technological development of agricultural work in developing country is not comparable to the countries like Australia or Israel. The main reason behind the lack of development is the small size of farms. Such farmers cannot afford expensive technology available in the market due to limited profit margins. The report describes an autonomous fertilization system that takes care of the fertilization requirements of the small scale farms at affordable rates. The system is divided in two parts namely User Interface and Control System. The user interface is designed using the state of the art Raspberry Pi board and a touch screen LCD. The control system is developed using the Arduino platform and can control five fertilizers at a time. The output of the system is the mix of the fertilizer, which is forced into the drip irrigation system of the farm. The system has built in data for the fertilization requirement for important crops and vegetation. The system also facilitates the customize fertilization requirements to be added in the system as per the user requirements.
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Abstract

In this paper, the usage of graphene transistors is introduced to be a suitable solution for extending low power designs. Static and current mode logic (CML) styles on both nanoscale graphene and silicon FINFET technologies are compared. Results show that power in CML styles approximately are independent of frequency and the graphene-based CML (GCML) designs are more power-efficient as the frequency and complexity increase. Compared to silicon-based CML (Si-CML) standard cells, there is 94% reduction in power consumption for G-CML counterparts. Furthermore, a G-CML 4-bit adder respectively offers 8.9 and 1.7 times less power and delay than the Si-CML adder.
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Abstract

In thermosfluid dynamics, free convection flows external to different geometries, such as cylinders, ellipses, spheres, curved walls, wavy plates, cones, etc., play major role in various industrial and process engineering systems. The thermal buoyancy force associated with natural convection flows can play a critical role in determining skin friction and heat transfer rates at the boundary. In thermal engineering, natural convection flows from cylindrical bodies has gained exceptional interest. In this article, we mathematically evaluate an entropy analysis of magnetohydrodynamic third-grade convection flows from permeable cylinder considering velocity and thermal slip effects. The resulting non-linear coupled partial differential conservation equations with associated boundary conditions are solved with an efficient unconditionally stable implicit finite difference Keller-Box technique. The impacts of momentum and heat transport coefficients, entropy generation and Bejan number are computed for several values of non-dimensional parameters arising in the flow equations. Streamlines are plotted to analyze the heat transport process in a two-dimensional domain. Furthermore, the deviations of the flow variables are compared with those computed for a Newtonian fluid and this has important implications in industrial thermal material processing operations, aviation technology, different enterprises, energy systems and thermal enhancement of industrial flow processes.
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Abstract

The paper presents a new method of lifetime calculations of steam turbine components operating at high temperatures. Component life is assessed on the basis of creep-fatigue damage calculated using long-term operating data covering the whole operating period instead of representative events only. The data are analysed automatically by a dedicated computer program developed to handle big amount of process data. Lifetime calculations are based on temperature and stress analyses performed by means of finite element method and using automatically generated input files with thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. The advanced lifetime assessment method is illustrated by an example of lifetime calculations of a steam turbine rotor.
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Abstract

This study reveals significant and emergent research topics in the field ‘engineering, mechanical’ through bibliometric analysis of articles indexed in Web of Science (WoS) from 1997 to 2016. Publications under consideration (219,191 articles) were examined using quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate general information about publications; evolution of research topics by keyword analysis; performance of countries, research centers and journals; and international collaborations. There was a threefold increase in number of articles throughout the period. The publications were related to 35 WoS categories; and mechanics and thermodynamics were dominating ones. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer was the leading journal in the field. The USA and China were outstanding countries of the field. Collaboration between these countries corresponded to 6.57% of all collaborative publications. Industrialized and developing countries dominated research activities in the field. Indian Institute of Technology was the leading research center due to number of publications. The results showed that heat transfer, finite element method, friction, wear, simulation, and fatigue are important topics of the field. There is an upward trend in research related to nanofluids, microchannel, phase change materials, and carbon nanotubes.
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Abstract

This paper presents an elasticity solution of adhesive tubular joints in laminated composites, with axial symmetry. In this model, adherends are orthotropic shells and the stacking sequences can be either symmetric or asymmetric. Adhesive layer is homogenous and made of isotropic material. They are modelled as continuously distributed tension/compression and shear springs. Employing constitutive, kinematics and equilibrium equations, sets of differential equations for each inside and outside of overlap zones are obtained. By solving these equations, shear and peel stresses in adhesive layer(s), as well as deflections, stress resultants and moment resultants in the adherends are determined. It is seen that the magnitude of peel stresses due to transverse shear stress resultant is much greater than that obtained from axial stress resultant. The developed results are compared with those obtained by finite element analysis using ANSYS software. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the aforementioned methods.
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Abstract

The central theme of this work was to analyze high aspect ratio structure having structural nonlinearity in low subsonic flow and to model nonlinear stiffness by finite element-modal approach. Total stiffness of high aspect ratio wing can be decomposed to linear and nonlinear stiffnesses. Linear stiffness is modeled by its eigenvalues and eigenvectors, while nonlinear stiffness is calculated by the method of combined Finite Element-Modal approach. The nonlinear modal stiffness is calculated by defining nonlinear static load cases first. The nonlinear stiffness in the present work is modeled in two ways, i.e., based on bending modes only and based on bending and torsion modes both. Doublet lattice method (DLM) is used for dynamic analysis which accounts for the dependency of aerodynamic forces and moments on the frequency content of dynamic motion. Minimum state rational fraction approximation (RFA) of the aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrix is used to formulate full aeroelastic state-space time domain equation. Time domain dynamics analyses show that structure behavior becomes exponentially growing at speed above the flutter speed when linear stiffness is considered, however, Limit Cycle Oscillations (LCO) is observed when linear stiffness along with nonlinear stiffness, modeled by FE-Modal approach is considered. The amplitude of LCO increases with the increase in the speed. This method is based on cantilevered configuration. Nonlinear static tests are generated while wing root chord is fixed in all degrees of freedom and it needs modification if one requires considering full aircraft. It uses dedicated commercial finite element package in conjunction with commercial aeroelastic package making the method very attractive for quick nonlinear aeroelastic analysis. It is the extension of M.Y. Harmin and J.E. Cooper method in which they used the same equations of motion and modeled geometrical nonlinearity in bending modes only. In the current work, geometrical nonlinearities in bending and in torsion modes have been considered.
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