The purpose of this paper is to depict the effect of diffusion and internal heat source on a two-temperature magneto-thermoelastic medium. The effect of magnetic field on two-temperature thermoelastic medium within the three-phase-lag model and Green-Naghdi theory without energy dissipation i discussed. The analytical method used to obtain the formula of the physical quantities is the normal mode analysis. Numerical results for the field quantities given in the physical domain are illustrated on the graphs. Comparisons are made with results of the two models with and without diffusion as well as the internal heat source and in the absence and presence of a magnetic field.
Fe-40wt% TiB2 nanocomposites were fabricated by mechanical activation and spark-plasma sintering of a powder mixture of iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH2). The powder mixture of (FeB, TiH2) was prepared by high-energy ball milling in a planetary ball mill at 700 rpm for 3 h followed by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) at various conditions. Analysis of the change in relative sintered density and densification rate during sintering showed that a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction occurs to form TiB2 from FeB and Ti. A sintered body with relative density higher than 98% was obtained after sintering at 1150°C for 5 and 15 min. The microstructural observation of sintered compacts with the use of FE-SEM and TEM revealed that ultrafine particulates with approximately 5 nm were evenly distributed in an Fe-matrix. A hardness value of 83 HRC was obtained, which is equivalent to that of conventional WC-20 Co systems.
Potential sources of rare earth elements are sought after in the world by many researchers. Coal ash obtained at high temperatures (HTA ) is considered among these sources. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the suitability of the high temperature ash (HTA ) formed during the combustion of bituminous coal from the Ruda beds of the Pniówek coal mine as an potential resource of REY . The 13 samples of HTA obtained from the combustion of metabituminous (B) coal were analyzed. The analyses showed that the examined HTA samples varied in their chemical composition. In accordance with the chemical classification of HTA , the analyzed ash samples were classified as belonging to the following types: sialic, sialocalcic, sialoferricalcic, calsialic, fericalsialic, ferisialic. The research has shown that the rare earth elements content (REY ) in examined HTA samples are characterized by high variability. The average REY content in the analyzed ashes was 2.5 times higher than the world average (404 ppm). Among rare earth elements, the light elements (LREY ) were the most abundant. Heavy elements (HREY ) had the lowest share. A comparison of the content of the individual rare earth elements in HTA samples and in UCC showed that it was almost 20 times higher than in UCC. The distribution patterns of REY plotted for all samples within their entire range were positioned above the reference level and these curves were of the M-H or M-L type. The data presented indicate, that the analyzed ash samples should be regarded as promising REY raw materials. Considering the fact that in 7 out of 13 analyzed ash samples the REY content was higher than 800 ppm, REY recovery from these ashes may prove to be economic.
In this study, the turbulent non-premixed methane-air flame is simulated to determine the effect of air velocity on the length of flame, temperature distribution and mole fraction of species. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is used to perform this simulation. To solve the turbulence flow, k-ε model is used. In contrast to the previous works, in this study, in each one of simulations the properties of materials are taken variable and then the results are compared. The results show that at a certain flow rate of fuel, by increasing the air velocity, similar to when the properties are constant, the width of the flame becomes thinner and the maximum temperature is higher; the penetration of oxygen into the fuel as well as fuel consumption is also increased. It is noteworthy that most of the pollutants produced are NOx, which are strongly temperature dependent. The amount of these pollutants rises when the temperature is increased. As a solution, decreasing the air velocity can decrease the amount of these pollutants. Finally, comparing the result of this study and the other work, which considers constant properties, shows that the variable properties assumption leads to obtaining more exact solution but the trends of both results are similar.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of adding bio-components in the form of methyl esters of corn oil to the milesPLUS diesel oil on its fractional composition. The corn biofuel was produced in-house by using an own-design GW-200 reactor. The diesel fuel evaporated at temperatures ranging from 162 to 352oC. The addition of 7, 20 and 40% of a bio-component in principle does not affect the deterioration of the starting point distillation temperatures. They affect the temperature at the end of distillation to a greater extent, resulting in temperatures exceeding 360oC.
Postharvest processing of grain is an important step in the overall grain production process. It makes possible not only quantitative and qualitative preservation of the harvest, but also ensures maximum profit from its sale at the most favorable market conditions. Convective heat treatment (drying, cooling) guarantees commercial harvest conservation, prevents its loss, and in some cases improves the quality of the finished product. The necessity of intensification and automation of technological processes of postharvest grain processing requires the development of methods of mathematical modeling of energy-intensive processes of convective heat treatment. The determination and substantiation of optimum modes and parameters of equipment operation to ensure the preservation of grain quality is possible only when applying mathematical modeling techniques. In this work, a mathematical model of particulate material drying is presented through a system of differential equations in partial derivatives of which the variable in time and space relationship between heat and mass transfer processes in the material and a drying agent is reflected. The aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of the interrelated fields of unsteady temperature and moisture content of the material and the drying agent on the basis of mathematical models of heat and mass transfer in the layer of particulate material in convective heat approach or heat retraction. The implementation of the mathematical model proposed in the standard mathematical set allows analyzing efficiency of machines and equipment for the convective heat treatment of particulate agricultural materials in a dense layer, according the determinant technological parameters and operating modes.
Constantly developing production process and high requirements concerning the quality of glass determine the need for continuous improvement of tools and equipment needed for its production. Such tools like forms, most often made of cast-iron, are characterized by thick wall thickness compared to their overall dimensions and work in difficult conditions such as heating of the surface layer, increase of thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradient on the wall thickness, occurrence of thermal shock effect, resulting from cyclically changing temperatures during filling and emptying of the mould. There is no best and universal method for assessing how samples subjected to cyclic temperature changes behave. Research on thermal fatigue is a difficult issue, mainly due to the instability of this parameter, which depends on many factors, such as the temperature gradient in which the element works, the type of treatment and the chemical composition of the material. Important parameters for these materials are at high temperature resistance to thermal shock and thermal fatigue what will be presented in this paper.
In this paper, thermally-excited, lateral free vibration analysis of a small-sized Euler-Bernoulli beam is studied based on the nonlocal theory. Nonlocal effect is exerted into analysis utilizing differential constitutive model of Eringen. This model is suitable for design of sensors and actuators in dimensions of micron and submicron. Sudden temperature rise conducted through the thickness direction of the beam causes thermal stresses and makes thermo-mechanical properties to vary. This temperature field is supposed to be constant in the lateral direction. Temperatures of the top and bottom surfaces of the system are considered to be equal to each other. Governing equation of motion is derived using Hamilton’s principle. Numerical analysis of the system is performed by Galerkin’s approach. For verification of the present results, comparison between the obtained results and those of benchmark is reported. Numerical results demonstrate that dynamic behavior of small-sized system is been effected by temperature shift, nonlocal parameter, and slenderness ratio. As a result, taking the mentioned parameters into account leads to better and more reliable design in miniaturized-based industries.
This scientific paper presents the research on influence of austenitizing temperature on kinetics and evolution of the spheroidal plain cast iron during eutectoid reaction in isothermal conditions. The cast iron has been austenitized in temperatures of 900, 960 or 1020°C. There were two temperature values of isothermal holding taken into consideration: 760 or 820°C. The order of creation of reaction products and their morphology have been analyzed. The particular attention has been paid to the initial stage of transformation. The qualitative research has been executed using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), as well as quantitative research (LM). The influence of austenitizing temperature has also been determined on transformation kinetics and structural composition. It was found that the increase of austenitizing temperature is conductive to the initial release of structures by metastable system. A reduction of time was observed of the initial stage of transformation at temperature close to Ar12 with its simultaneous elongation at temperature close to Ar11, with an increase of austenitizing temperature. The dependences obtained by the metallographic method confirm the prior results of dilatometric research of eutectoid reaction.
Blast furnace and cupola furnace are furnace aggregates used for pig iron and cast iron production. Both furnace aggregates work on very similar principles: they use coke as the fuel, charge goes from the top to down, the gases flow against it, etc. Their construction is very similar (cupola furnace is usually much smaller) and the structures of pig iron and cast iron are very similar too. Small differences between cast iron and pig iron are only in carbon and silicon content. The slags from blast furnace and cupola furnace are very similar in chemical composition, but blast furnace slag has a very widespread use in civil engineering, primarily in road construction, concrete and cement production, and in other industries, but the cupola furnace slag utilization is minimal. The contribution analyzes identical and different properties of both kinds of slags, and attempts to explain the differences in their uses. They are compared by the contribution of the blast furnace slag cooled in water and on air, and cupola furnace slag cooled on air and granulated in water. Their chemical composition, basicity, hydraulicity, melting temperature and surface were compared to explain the differences in their utilization.
SI engines are highly susceptible to excess emissions when started at low ambient temperatures. This phenomenon has multiple air quality and climate forcing implications. Direct injection petrol engines feature a markedly different fuelling strategy, and so their emissions behaviour is somewhat different from indirect injection petrol engines. The excess emissions of direct injection engines at low ambient temperatures should also differ. Additionally, the direct injection fuel delivery process leads to the formation of PM, and DISI engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study reports on laboratory experiments quantifying excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants over a legislative driving cycle following cold start at a low ambient temperature for both engine types. Over the legislative cycle for testing at -7°C (the UDC), emissions of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were higher when tested at -7°C than at 24°C. Massive increases in emissions of HC and CO were observed, together with more modest increases in NOx and CO2 emissions. Results from the entire driving cycle showed excess emissions in both phases (though they were much larger for the UDC). The DISI vehicle showed lower increases in fuel consumption than the port injected vehicles, but greater increases in emission of HC and CO. DISI particle number emissions increased by around 50%; DISI particle mass by over 600%. The observed emissions deteriorations varied somewhat by engine type and from vehicle to vehicle. Excesses were greatest following start-up, but persisted, even after several hundred seconds’ driving. The temperature of the intake air appeared to have a limited but signiﬁcant effect on emissions after the engine has been running for some time. All vehicles tested here comfortably met the relevant EU limits, providing further evidence that these limits are no longer challenging and need updating.
Cooling is indispensable for maintaining the desired performance and reliability over a very huge variety of products like electronic devices, computer, automobiles, high power laser system etc. Apart from the heat load amplification and heat fluxes caused by many industrial products, cooling is one of the major technical challenges encountered by the industries like manufacturing sectors, transportation, microelectronics, etc. Normally water, ethylene glycol and oil are being used as the fluid to carry away the heat in these devices. The development of nanofluid generally shows a better heat transfer characteristics than the water. This research work summarizes the experimental study of the forced convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of a nanofluid consisting of water and 1% Al2O3(volume concentration) nanoparticle flowing in a parallel flow, counter flow and shell and tube heat exchanger under laminar flow conditions. The Al2O3 nanoparticles of about 50 nm diameter are used in this work. Three different mass flow rates have been selected and the experiments have been conducted and their results are reported. This result portrays that the overall heat transfer coefficient and dimensionless Nusselt number of nanofluid is slightly higher than that of the base liquid at same mass flow rate at same inlet temperature. From the experimental result it is clear that the overall heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid increases with an increase in the mass flow rate. It shows that whenever mass flow rate increases, the overall heat transfer coefficient along with Nusselt number eventually increases irrespective of flow direction. It was also found that during the increase in mass flow rate LMTD value ultimately decreases irrespective of flow direction. However, shell and tube heat exchanger provides better heat transfer characteristics than parallel and counter flow heat exchanger due to multi pass flow of nanofluid. The overall heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number and logarithmic mean temperature difference of the water and Al2O3/water nanofluid are also studied and the results are plotted graphically.
Induction surface hardening means the hardening of a thin zone of the material only, while its core remains soft. The paper deals with the modelling of the Consecutive Dual Frequency Induction Hardening (CDFIH) of gear wheels and its validation. For gear wheels with modulus m smaller than 6 mm a contour profile of hardness distribution could be obtained. The investigated gear wheel is heated first by a medium frequency inductor to the temperature approximately equal to the modified lower temperature Ac1m. It means beginning of the austenite transformation. Then the gear wheel is heated by the high frequency inductor to the hardening temperature making it possible to complete the austenite transformation and immediately cooled. In order to design the process it is necessary to identify modified critical temperatures and to obtain expected temperature distribution within the whole tooth.
The influence of external factors, temperature and flow velocity on the corrosion processes St3 in model solutions petrochemical plant recycled water with high salinity and hardness without open systems and in the presence of the inhibiting composition. It was found that an increase in temperature leads to a linear increase in corrosion rates, and the change in circulating water flow rate leads to the extreme nature of corrosion processes; optimal conditions are determined. Recommended use of cathodic inhibitors or mixed type inhibitor, in particular, the composition "SVOD-BI" (means for controlling the biological corrosion), which can significantly reduce the effect of temperature and flow on the corrosion rate St3, promotes the growth and strengthening of the oxide film in the presence of oxygen, increases the degree of protection of steel and preventing the formation of at its surface carbonate-calcium deposits.
The present work discusses results of increased temperature on shape-dimensional changes of a 110 type hose coupling, produced from EN AC-AlSi11 alloy with the use of pressure die casting technology. The castings were soaked for 3.5 h at temperatures 460°C, 475°C and 490°C. The verification of shape-dimensional accuracy of the elements after soaking treatment, in relation to raw casting, was carried out by comparing the 3D models received from 3D scanning. Soaking temperature of about 460°C-475°C results in no significant changes in the shapes and dimensions of the castings, or surface defects in the form of blisters, which can be seen at a temperature of 490°C.
In this study a two-step short wet etching was implemented for the black silicon formation. The proposed structure consists of two steps. The first step: wet acidic etched pits-like morphology with a quite new solution of lowering the texturization temperature and second step: wires structure obtained by a metal assisted etching (MAE). The temperature of the process was chosen due to surface development control and surface defects limitation during texturing process. This allowed to maintain better minority carrier lifetime compared to etching in ambient temperature. On the top of the acidic texture the wires were formed with optimized height of 350 nm. The effective reflectance of presented black silicon structure in the wavelength range of 300-1100 nm was equal to 3.65%.
In the paper recent progress at VIGO/MUT (Military University of Technology) MOCVD Laboratory in the growth of Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) multilayer heterostructures on GaAs/CdTe substrates is presented. The optimum conditions for the growth of single layers and complex multilayer heterostructures have been established. One of the crucial stages of HgCdTe epitaxy is CdTe nucleation on GaAs substrate. Successful composite substrates have been obtained with suitable substrate preparation, liner and susceptor treatment, proper control of background fluxes and appropriate nucleation conditions. The other critical stage is the interdi#27;used multilayer process (IMP). The growth of device-quality HgCdTe heterostructures requires complete homogenization of CdTe-HgTe pairs preserving at the same time suitable sharpness of composition and doping profiles. This requires for IMP pairs to be very thin and grown in a short time. Arsenic and iodine have been used for acceptor and donor doping. Suitable growth conditions and post growth anneal is essential for stable and reproducible doping. In situ anneal seems to be sufficient for iodine doping at any required level. In contrast, efficient As doping with near 100% activation requires ex situ anneal at near saturated mercury vapours. As a result we are able to grow multilayer fully doped (100) and (111) heterostructures for various infrared devices including photoconductors, photoelectromagnetic and photovoltaic detectors. The present generation of uncooled long wavelength infrared devices is based on multijunction photovoltaic devices. The technology steps in fabrication of devices are described. It is shown that near-BLIP performance is possible to achieve at ≈ 230 K with optical immersion. These devices are especially promising as 7.89.5 um detectors, indicating the potential for achieving detectivities above 109 cmHz1/2/W.
In the paper the modelling of thermo-mechanical effects in the process of friction welding of corundum ceramics and aluminium is presented. The modelling is performed by means of finite element method. The corundum ceramics contains 97% of Al2O3. The mechanical and temperature fields are considered as coupled fields. Simulation of loading of the elements bonded with the heat flux from friction heat on the contact surface is also shown. The heat flux was modified in the consecutive time increments of numerical solutions by changeable pressure on contact surface. Time depending temperature distribution in the bonded elements is also determined. The temperature distribution on the periphery of the cylindrical surfaces of the ceramics and Al was compared to the temperature measurements done with a thermovision camera. The results of the simulation were compared to those obtained from the tests performed by means of a friction welding machine
Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.
This paper presents the results of measurements of liquid metal fluidity and linear shrinkage of nickel alloy IN-713C in vacuum induction melting furnace Balzers VSG-2. Because of limited volume of the furnace chamber special models for technological trials were designed and constructed to fit in the mould of dimensions 170x95x100mm. Two different designs of test models were proposed: horizontal round rods and modified spiral. Preliminary studies were carried out for alloys Al-Si. Horizontal round rods test was useful for evaluation of fluidity of hypoeutectic silumin, however in case of nickel superalloy the mould cavity was completely filled in each test because of high required pouring temperature. Positive results were obtained from the modified spiral test for all alloys used in the research. Relationship between the linear shrinkage for the test rod and a specific indicator of contraction defined on a spiral was observed.
The paper reports on a long-wave infrared (cut-off wavelength ~ 9 μm) HgCdTe detector operating under nbiased condition and room temperature (300 K) for both short response time and high detectivity operation. The ptimal structure in terms of the response time and detectivity versus device architecture was shown. The response time of the long-wave (active layer Cd composition, xCd = 0.19) HgCdTe detector for 300 K was calculated at a level of τs ~ 1 ns for zero bias condition, while the detectivity − at a level of D* ~ 109 cmHz1/2/W assuming immersion. It was presented that parameters of the active layer and P+ barrier layer play a critical role in order to reach τs ≤ 1 ns. An extra series resistance related to the processing (RS+ in a range 5−10 Ω) increased the response time more than two times (τs ~ 2.3 ns).
The excellent property combination of thin wall ductile iron castings (TWDI), including thin wall alloyed cast iron (e.g. austenitic TWDI) has opened new horizons for cast iron to replace steel castings and forgings in many engineering applications with considerable cost benefits. TWDI is considered as a potential material for the preparation of light castings with good mechanical and utility properties, the cost of which is relatively low. In this study, unalloyed and high Ni-alloyed (25% Ni) spheroidal graphite cast iron, with an austenitic metallic matrix were investigated. The research was conducted for thin-walled iron castings with 2, 3 and 5mm wall thickness, using different mould temperature (20°C, and 160°C) to achieve various cooling rates. The metallographic examinations i.e. characteristic of graphite nodules, metallic matrix, and primary grains of austenite dendrites (in high-nickel NTWDI) and mechanical properties were investigated. The study shows that homogeneity of the casting structure of thin-walled castings varies when changing the wall thickness and mould temperature. Finally, mechanical properties of thin-walled ductile iron castings with ferritic-pearlitic and austenitic metallic matrix have been shown.
Nickel-based alloys are widely used in industries such as the aircraft industry, chemicals, power generation, and others. Their stable mechanical properties in combination with high resistance to aggressive environments at high temperatures make these materials suitable for the production of components of devices and machines intended for operation in extremely difficult conditions, e.g. in aircraft engines. This paper presents the results of thermal and mechanical tests performed on precision castings made of the Inconel 713C alloy and intended for use in the production of low pressure turbine blades. The tests enabled the determination of the nil strength temperature (NST), the nil ductility temperature (NDT), and the ductility recovery temperature (DRT) of the material tested. Based on the values obtained, the high temperature brittleness range (HTBR) and the hot cracking resistance index were determined. Metallographic examinations were conducted in order to describe the cracking mechanisms. It was found that the main cracking mechanism was the partial melting of grains and subsequently the rupture of a thin liquid film along crystal boundaries as a result of deformation during crystallisation. Another cracking mechanism identified was the DDC (Ductility Dip Cracking) mechanism. The results obtained provide a basis for improving precision casting processes for aircraft components and constitute guidelines for designers, engineers, and casting technologists.