Transmission of vibroacoustic energy from an internal combustion engine (ICE) to its surroundings largely depends on how it is mounted, on available transmission paths and on the construction of the vehicle body and/or its surrounding structures. This is especially true in low speed engines in enclosed areas which generate perceptually weak noise, but strong low-frequency waves which energy has a negative impact on human health, comfort and driving safety especially in prolonged exposure to the source. The primary aim of the article was to analyse components of the ICE unit which had a determining impact on the reduction of low-frequency waves. Thus, the structurally transmitted noise from the ICE to its surrounding structure (body of the passenger vehicle) was analysed. The results of the vibroacoustic measurements were compared to modal analysis in order to determine possible resonance sources in the vehicle body and/or for assessing the influence of the vehicles safety gear on the generated vibroacoustic energy transfer into the cabin area of the passenger vehicle. Measurements were made for a passenger vehicle at rest and operating in its most common operational speed as well as for the stationary ICE of a cogenerate unit (CGU). Measurements and FFT analysis were used for the detection of the vibroacoustic energy sound pressure level (noise) and mechanical vibration. Firstly, the low-frequency noise sources were determined and their direct effects on the human body were investigated. Finally, this paper suggests some measures which may contribute to the reduction of undesirable vibroacoustic energy in enclosed areas.
High−frequency acoustic measurements supplemented by a modern optical method, Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC), allowed us to perform a comparative analysis through the application of a mathematical model. We have studied the correspondence between measured and modelled echoes from zooplankton aggregations consisted mainly of two Calanus species. Data were collected from the upper 50 m water layer within the hydrographical frontal zone on the West Spitsbergen Shelf. The application of a “high− −pass” model of sound scattering by fluid−like particles to the distribution of zooplankton sizes measured by LOPC resulted mostly in very good agreement between the measured (420 kHz BioSonics) and modelled values, except for cases with very low zooplankton abundance or with occurrence of stronger scatterers ( e.g. macrozooplankton, fish). An acoustic model validated for the elastic parameters of zooplankton confirmed that particles smaller than 1 mm in diameter, although highly abundant, did not contribute significantly to the sound scattering process at a frequency of 420 kHz. The implementation of diverse complementary methods has great potential to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution in zooplankton distribution studies; however, their compatibility has to be tested first.
The paper analyzes the estimation of the fundamental frequency from the real speech signal which is obtained by recording the speaker in the real acoustic environment modeled by the MP3 method. The estimation was performed by the Picking-Peaks algorithm with implemented parametric cubic convolution (PCC) interpolation. The efficiency of PCC was tested for Catmull-Rom, Greville, and Greville two- parametric kernel. Depending on MSE, a window that gives optimal results was chosen.
This paper presents the measurement of vibrational properties of sundatang soundboard. Sundatang is a plucked stringed traditional musical instrument that is popular among the Kadazandusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The vibrational properties of the soundboard are measured using CADA-X impact hammering system in a condition where the instrument is without any string. There are two types of sundatang used in this study; one made from acacia and the other from vitex wood. In this measurement, frequency response functions (FRFs) and modal parameters of the top plate and back plate of this instrument are obtained. It is found that in free edge, fundamental frequency of both plates of acacia sundatang is greater than the vitex sundatang in a range of 112 Hz to 230 Hz. However, in clamped edge (attached to its ribs), it was modified to a lower frequency and closer to each other in the range of 55 Hz to 59 Hz. Another finding is the detection of the excitation of similar mode shape at different resonance frequencies. This phenomenon is termed as Different State of Mode (DSM) which is observed may be because the number of testing points is not enough. Findings of this study provide important information to the study of quality development of this instrument
This article describes the influence of thermal and dielectric properties of materials to properties of electrical insulating systems in high voltage electrical equipment. The aim of this experiment is to improve the thermal and dielectric properties of electrical insulating (composite) materials using micro fillers of aluminium oxide Al2O3. Supplement of fillers of aluminium oxide with better thermal conductivity to the electrical insulating systems can be modified to increase their thermal conductivity. Improving the thermal conductivity of electric insulation by addition of micro- or nanofillers and in the same time not adversely affecting the dielectric properties is the objective of the study. Paper is presenting the results measured on prepared samples. Improved thermal conductivity is compared with other dielectric properties as: dissipation factor temperature dependences, resistivity and dielectric spectroscopy. To determine the dielectric insulating properties the following characteristics were measured: tanδ versus temperature from 110°C to 150°C, absorption and resorption currents, volume resistivity. Furthermore, this article describes analysis of moisture and conductivity the material by dielectric spectroscopy.
This paper presents a novel complementary CPWfed slotted microstrip patch antenna for operation at 2.4 GHz, 5.2 GHz and 6.3 GHz frequencies. The primary structure consists of the complementary split ring resonator slots on a patch and the design is fabricated on FR-4 epoxy substrate with substrate thickness of 1.6 mm. The described structure lacks the presence of a ground plane and makes use of a number of circular complementary SRRs along with rectangular slots on the radiating patch. The structure provides a wide bandwidth of around 390 MHz, 470 MHz and 600 MHz at the three bands with return losses of -11.5 dB, -24.3996dB and -24.4226 dB, respectively. The inclusion of the rectangular slots in the CSRR based slot antenna with stairecase structure improved the performance with respect to return loss.
The paper focuses on the influence of the longitudinal and lateral suspension damping in correlation with the velocity upon the vibration behaviour of the railway vehicles while moving on a tangent track. The numerical simulations are developed based on a linear model of a 17-degree of freedom vehicle that allows the evaluation of the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle in a sub-critical velocity. Based on the response frequency functions of the vehicle in a harmonic and in a random behaviour, a series of basic properties of the stable behaviour of the forced lateral vibrations has been made evident, as well as the opportunities to lower the level of the carbody vibrations by changing the suspension damping.
The Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is used to control the speed of the pumpmotor to attain the desired flow rate and fluid level in a fluid system. An AC drive provides efficient flow control by varying the pump-motor speed. The comparison of energy requirements and costs in a system where a throttling device is used for flow control on a centrifugal pump with the power used when an variable frequency drive (VFD) is used to control the same flow, evidently shows potential savings. In this system, AC Motor Frequency drive and static pressure transmitter, turbine type flowmeter and Analog/Digital cards, micro-control unit and computer connection are designed specially to control flow rate, fluid flow type (turbulence or laminar) and water level at the different conditions with different PID parameters.
Reconciliation between two copper ore mines transferred ore from one mine to another for processing in enrichment plants generated the need to regularly study the amount and composition of the ore on the conveyor connecting these two mines. To ensure the objectivity of the study, taking composite samples and their analysis was entrusted to a specialized outside laboratory. However, the managing staff of both mines still have doubts whether sampling results reflect correctly content of transported ore especially when the fed is highly variable. In order to investigate how the relatively low sampling rate affects the accuracy and precision of the measurement, the article investigates the hypothetical situation on the linking conveyor with the ore having extremely differentiated mineralization: 80% of almost barren rock (below 0.7% Cu) and 20% of the richly mineralized shale (around 10% Cu). Such ore occurs in some areas of the mine, from which it is fed onto a connecting conveyor. Through simulation techniques it was examined how the frequency of sampling can influence the distribution of the pooled sample results. It turned out that for 16 randomly selected samples in the following 15 minutes time intervals of a working shift, the spread of results around the simulated value is very large. A satisfactory accuracy level for the estimations of mean Cu content in the transported ore is achieved when the samples are collected at 30-second intervals. Only with sampling frequency close to on-line scanner parameters the probability of obtaining estimations with deviation exceeding 10% drops to the level of 2%. In the case of extremely differentiated ore doubts about confidence in the described measurements are fully confirmed, because with over 50% probability a single measurement could be deviated by 50% up and down from the true value.
This study investigates the effects of frequency, compression force and Vee angle parameters of High-Frequency Electric Resistance Welding (HF-ERW) process on mechanical properties of API X52 microalloy steel welding joint. Therefore, API X52 microalloy steel sheets having thickness of 8 mm was provided to manufacture pipes with the diameter of 16”. with direct weld seams using the HF-ERW method. During the manufacturing process, frequency values of 150, 200 and 250 kHz, compression forces of 2, 4 and 6 mark and Vee angles of 3°, 5°, and 7° were adopted. After changing the welding parameters, from the welded pipes, tensile and Charpy impact test samples prepared to macroscopically evaluate the weld metal flow and examine the effects of these parameters on mechanical properties of the welded joints. According to the results, it was concluded that frequency of 150 kHz, the compression force of 4 mark and Vee angle of 5° yields best mechanical properties in the HF-ERW joint of API X52 microalloy steel.
A traditional frequency analysis is not appropriate for observation of properties of non-stationary signals. This stems from the fact that the time resolution is not defined in the Fourier spectrum. Thus, there is a need for methods implementing joint time-frequency analysis (t/f) algorithms. Practical aspects of some representative methods of time-frequency analysis, including Short Time Fourier Transform, Gabor Transform, Wigner-Ville Transform and Cone-Shaped Transform are described in this paper. Unfortunately, there is no correlation between the width of the time-frequency window and its frequency content in the t/f analysis. This property is not valid in the case of a wavelet transform. A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation, which forms its own “wavelet window”. Compression of the wavelet narrows the window, and vice versa. Individual wavelet functions are well localized in time and simultaneously in scale (the equivalent of frequency). The wavelet analysis owes its effectiveness to the pyramid algorithm described by Mallat, which enables fast decomposition of a signal into wavelet components.
The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.
A new method for determining optimum dimension ratios for small rectangular rooms has been presented. In a theoretical model, an exact description of the room impulse response was used. Based on the impulse response, a frequency response of a room was calculated to find changes in the sound pressure level over the frequency range 20–200 Hz. These changes depend on the source and receiver positions, thus, a new metric equivalent to an average frequency response was introduced to quantify the overall sound pressure variation within the room for a selected source position. A numerical procedure was employed to seek a minimum value of the deviation of the sound pressure level response from a smooth fitted response determined by the quadratic polynomial regression. The most smooth frequency responses were obtained when the source was located at one of the eight corners of a room. Thus, to find the best possible dimension ratios, in the numerical procedure the optimal source position was assumed. Calculation results have shown that optimum dimension ratios depend on the room volume and the sound damping inside a room, and for small and medium volumes these ratios are roughly 1 : 1.48 : 2.12, 1 : 1.4 : 1.89 and 1 : 1.2 : 1.45. When the room volume was suitably large, the ratio 1 : 1.2 : 1.44 was found to be the best one.
The phase jitter enables to assess quality of signals transmitted in a bi-directional, long-distance fibre optic link dedicated for dissemination of the time and frequency signals. In the paper, we are considering measurements of jitter using a phase detector the detected frequency signal and the reference signal are supplied to. To cover the wideband jitter spectrum the detected signal frequency is divided and – because of the aliasing process – higher spectral components are shifted down. We are also examining the influence of a residual jitter that occurs in the reference signal generated by filtering the jitter occurring in the same signal, whose phase fluctuations we intend to measure. Then, we are discussing the evaluation results, which were obtained by using the target fibre optic time and frequency transfer system.
This paper proposed a new OFDM scheme called damped zero-pseudorandom noise orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DZPN-OFDM) scheme. In the proposed scheme, ZPN-OFDM non-zero part is damped to reduce its energy, thus the mutual interference power in-between the data and training blocks with conservative the pseudo-noise conventional properties required for channel estimation or synchronization. The motivation of this paper is the OFDM long guard interval working in wide dispersion channels, whereas a significant energy is wasted when the conventional ZPN-OFDM is used as well as the BER performance is also degraded. Moreover, the proposed scheme doesn’t duplicate the guard interval to solve the ZPN-OFDM spectrum efficiency loss problem. Both detailed performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed DZPNOFDM scheme can, indeed, offer significant bit error rate, spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency improvement.
Low-frequency noise measurements have long been recognized as a valuable tool in the examination of quality and reliability of metallic interconnections in the microelectronic industry. While characterized by very high sensitivity, low-frequency noise measurements can be extremely time-consuming, especially when tests have to be carried out over an extended temperature range and with high temperature resolution as it is required by some advanced characterization approaches recently proposed in the literature. In order to address this issue we designed a dedicated system for the characterization of the low-frequency noise produced by a metallic line vs temperature. The system combines high flexibility and automation with excellent background noise levels. Test temperatures range from ambient temperature up to 300◦C. Measurements can be completely automated with temperature changing in pre-programmed steps. A ramp temperature mode is also possible that can be used, with proper caution, to virtually obtain a continuous plot of noise parameters vs temperature.
The paper discusses possible applications of wireless technologies in support of lean manufacturing tools. The typology of lean tools is provided. It distinguishes three main categories, which are identiﬁcation and analysis of waste, improvement implementation, and process monitoring. The set of lean tools was analyzed in terms of information requirements. On the other hand, the typology of wireless technologies was discussed including RFID and Wi-Fi. The literature review of wireless technology applications for support of lean tools was conducted. The literature was systematically reviewed from the point of view of speciﬁc technologies and speciﬁc tools which were the subjects of the analyzed publications. Both typologies were synthesized to establish a framework for wireless technologies applications in the context of lean manufacturing implementation. It also could serve as a guideline for lean practitioners and implies future research directions. This paper is an extended version of paper published by .
The low-frequency optical-signal phase noise induced by mechanical vibration of the base occurs in field-deployed fibers. Typical telecommunication data transfer is insensitive to this type of noise but the phenomenon may influence links dedicated to precise Time and Frequency (T&F) fiber-optic transfer that exploit the idea of stabilization of phase or propagation delay of the link. To measure effectiveness of suppression of acoustic noise in such a link, a dedicated measurement setup is necessary. The setup should enable to introduce a low-frequency phase corruption to the optical signal in a controllable way. In the paper, a concept of a setup in which the mechanically induced acoustic-band optical signal phase corruption is described and its own features and measured parameters are presented. Next, the experimental measurement results of the T&F transfer TFTS-2 system’s immunity as a function of the fibre-optic length vs. the acoustic-band noise are presented. Then, the dependency of the system immunity on the location of a noise source along the link is also pointed out.
Measurement of low-frequency noise properties of modern electronic components is a very demanding challenge due to the low magnitude of a noise signal and the limit of a dissipated power. In such a case, an ac technique with a lock-in amplifier or the use of a low-noise transformer as the first stage in the signal path are common approaches. A software dual-phase virtual lock-in (VLI) technique has been developed and tested in low-frequency noise studies of electronic components. VLI means that phase-sensitive detection is processed by a software layer rather than by an expensive hardware lock-in amplifier. The VLI method has been tested in exploration of noise in polymer thick-film resistors. Analysis of the obtained noise spectra of voltage fluctuations confirmed that the 1/f noise caused by resistance fluctuations is the dominant one. The calculated value of the parameter describing the noise intensity of a resistive material, C = 1·10−21 m3, is consistent with that obtained with the use of a dc method. On the other hand, it has been observed that the spectra of (excitation independent) resistance noise contain a 1/f component whose intensity depends on the excitation frequency. The phenomenon has been explained by means of noise suppression by impedances of the measurement circuit, giving an excellent agreement with the experimental data.
This overview paper presents and compares different methods traditionally used for estimating damped sinusoid parameters. Firstly, direct nonlinear least squares fitting the signal model in the time and frequency domains are described. Next, possible applications of the Hilbert transform for signal demodulation are presented. Then, a wide range of autoregressive modelling methods, valid for damped sinusoids, are discussed, in which frequency and damping are estimated from calculated signal linear self-prediction coefficients. These methods aim at solving, directly or using least squares, a matrix linear equation in which signal or its autocorrelation function samples are used. The Prony, Steiglitz-McBride, Kumaresan-Tufts, Total Least Squares, Matrix Pencil, Yule-Walker and Pisarenko methods are taken into account. Finally, the interpolated discrete Fourier transform is presented with examples of Bertocco, Yoshida, and Agrež algorithms. The Matlab codes of all the discussed methods are given. The second part of the paper presents simulation results, compared with the Cramér-Rao lower bound and commented. All tested methods are compared with respect to their accuracy (systematic errors), noise robustness, required signal length, and computational complexity.
Cardiac Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a commonly used clinical procedure for treating many cardiac arrhythmias. However, the efficacy of RF ablation may be limited by two factors: small ventricular lesions and impedance rise, leading to coagulum formation and desiccation of tissue. In this paper, a high frequency (HF) energy ablation system operating at 27.12 MHz based on an automated load matching system was developed. A HF energy matched probe associated to the automated impedance matching device ensures optimal transfer of the energy to the load. The aim of this study was to evaluate this energy for catheter ablation of the atrioventricular junction. In vivo studies were performed using 10 sheep to characterize the lesions created with the impedance matching system. No cardiac perforation was noted. No thrombus was observed at the catheter tip. Acute lesions ranged from 3 to 45 mm in diameter (mean ±SD = 10.3±10) and from 1 to 15 mm in depth (6.7±3.9), exhibiting a close relationship between HF delivered power level and lesion size. Catheter ablation using HF current is feasible and appears effective in producing a stable AV block when applied at the AV junction and large myocardial lesions at ventricular sites.