The copper droplets contained in the post-processing liquid slag are subjected to the treatment by the complex reagent. The complex reagent has been recently elaborated and patented in frame of the Grant No. PBS3/A5/45/2015. In particular, the complex reagent is dedicated to the post-processing slags coming from the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów, as a product of the direct-to-blister technology performed in the flash furnace. The recently patented complex reagent effectively assists not only in agglomeration, and coagulation but also in the deposition of the copper droplets at the bottom of crucible / furnace as well. The treatment of the postprocessing slags by the complex reagent was performed in the BOLMET S.A. Company as in the industrial conditions which were similar to those usually applied in the KGHM – Polish Copper (Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów). The competition between buoyancy force and gravity is studied from the viewpoint of the required deposition of coagulated copper droplets. The applied complex reagent improves sufficiently the surface free energy of the copper droplets. In the result, the mechanical equilibrium between coagulated copper droplets and surrounding liquid slag is properly modified. Finally, sufficiently large copper droplets are subjected to a settlement on the crucible / furnace bottom according to the requirements.
An intentional change in material properties is an important condition for castings production. It is one way how to meet the casting requirements of how to adapt the material properties to the operating conditions. Centrifugally cast rolls are multi-layer rollers, castings. The working layer of the barrel is called the "shell" and the body of the roll and the necks rolls are called "core". The article deals with the influence of the properties of the core iron. Earlier laboratory experiments were primary analysed for metallographic analysis and mechanical properties. These data were compared back to the experiments. The results of these laboratory working were later applied in the operating conditions of the roll foundry Vítkovitcké slévárny, spol. s r.o. The spun cast roll produced with the applied metallurgical processing change was supplied to the hot strip mill. There were monitored the positive effect of the change of the metallurgical process of the production of the core iron on the useful properties of the centrifugally cast roll. The experiment was done in order to increase the mechanical properties of ductile pearlite ductile iron. The copper in these core iron material increases the hardness and strength primarily.
The Ca50Mg20Zn12Cu18 was assessed with different methods in order to characterize its basic characteristics, and to determine whether the amorphous alloy of such composition would be applicable as an implant material. The XRD analysis was conducted to conclude the structure of the initial material. The Ca50Mg20Zn12Cu18 ingot sample demonstrates crystalline structure containing two main intermetallic phases, however as-cast plates show features of an amorphous material, revealing the characteristic amorphous halo on the x-ray patterns. It was confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy method and fracture images revealing chevron pattern morphology with shell type fracture. Corrosion resistance, was studied using the potentiostatic analysis. The amorphous samples show higher resistance than the crystalline one. Post corrosion surface of the Ca50Mg20Zn12Cu18 alloy exhibits high concentration of magnesium and calcium hydroxides, forming the globular structures in large aggregates of spherical units.
The subject of the study was the production and characterization of three ceramic-metal graded composites, which differed in addition of the metallic phase. The following composites systems were investigated: Al2O3-Mo, Al2O3-Cu, Al2O3-W. Composites were produced by centrifugal slip casting method. This technique combines the classic casting of the slurry into porous molds with the action of centrifugal force. As a result, sleeve-shaped shapes with a metallic phase gradient were obtained. X-ray phase analysis have not revealed new phases in the produced composites. The type of metallic phase and its distribution in the ceramic matrix influenced the hardness of the produced composites.
The article deals with ultrasonic testing possibilities of the copper alloy centrifugal casts. It focused on the problems that arise when testing of castings is made of non-ferrous materials. Most common types of casting defects is dedicated in theoretical introduction of article. Ultrasonic testing technique by conventional ultrasound system is described in the theoretical part too. Practical ultrasonic testing of centrifugal copper alloy cast - brass is in experimental part. The experimental sample was part of centrifugally cast brass ring with dimensions of Ø1200x34 mm. The influence of microstructure on ultrasonic attenuation and limitations in testing due to attenuation is describes in experimental part. Conventional direct single element contact ultrasound probe with frequencies of 5 MHz, 3.5 MHz and 2 MHz were used for all experimental measurements. The results of experimental part of article are recommendations for selecting equipment and accessories for casting testing made of non-ferrous metals.
The article presents chosen aspects of foundry engineering of the settlement dwellers, including the archaeometric characteristics and metal science analysis of the artefacts, as well as an attempted reconstruction of the production organization. Discovered in Szczepidło (Greater Poland), the foundry workshop is unique in Central European Bronze Age. This workshop foundry operated roughly XIV-XII Century BC. Its production is evidenced by the presence of markers of the whole production cycle: semi-finished and finished products, production waste, fragments of crucibles and casting ladles with traces of usage, and tools. On this basis, the alloys and foundry technologies used have been described. The analysis of foundry technology of copper alloys in the settlement area was carried out by observing the surface and structure of the products, semi-finished artefacts and fragments of crucibles by applying optical microscopy (OM), confocal microscopy (CLSM) and Xray radiography (RT). The investigations of compositions were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDS).
Bending strength, thermal and electric conductivity and microstructure examinations of Cu based composite materials reinforced with Saffil alumina fibres are presented. Materials were produced by squeeze casting method applying the designed device and specially elaborated production parameters. Applying infiltration pressure of 90MPa and suitable temperature parameters provided manufacturing of copper based composite materials strengthened with Saffil alumina fibres characterized by the low rest porosity and good fibre-matrix interface. Three point bending tests at temperatures of 25, 100 and 300ºC were performed on specimens reinforced with 10, 15 and 20% of Saffil fibres. Introduced reinforcement effected on the relatively high bending strengths at elevated temperatures. In relation to unreinforced Cu casting strength of composite material Cu – 15vol.% Saffil fibres increase by about 25%, whereas at the highest applied test temperature of 300o C the improvement was almost 100%. Fibres by strengthening of the copper matrix and by transferring loads from the matrix reduce its plastic deformation and hinder the micro-crack developed during bending tests. Decreasing of thermal and electrical conductivity of Cu after incorporating fibres in the matrix are relatively small and these properties can be acceptable for electric and thermal applications.
The suspension of copper droplets in the slag is considered. The copper/slug suspension is delivered as the product from the direct-toblister process which is applied in the KGHM – Polska Miedź (Polish Copper) S.A. factory. The droplets / slag suspension was treated by a special set of reagents (patented by the authors) to improve the coagulation process. On the other hand, the observations are made to estimate if the melting / reduction process in the furnace is sufficiently effective to avoid a remaining of carbon in the copper droplets. The coagulation process was carried out in the crucible (laboratory scale). However, conditions imposed to the coagulation / solidification process in the laboratory scale were to some extent similar to those applied usually in the industry when the suspension is subjected to the analogous treatment in the electric arc-furnace. Some suggestions are formulated how to improve the industrial direct-to-blister process.
The possibility of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) removal from model solutions and real wastewater from the production of PCBs using Na2 CS3 for precipitation was presented in this paper. The testing was carried out on a laboratory scale using model and real industrial wastewater containing additives in the form of complexing compounds used in the production of PCBs (Na2 EDTA, NH3(aq), thiourea) and recommended by the USEPA (Na3 MGDA, Na4 GLDA). Application of Na2 CS3 in optimal conditions of conducting precipitation process was connected with obtaining wastewater containing low concentrations of metals (Cu 0.02 mg/L, Sn <0.01 mg/L, Ni <0.005 mg/L at pH 9.39 and Cu 0.07 mg/L, Sn <0.01 mg/L, Ni 0.006 mg/L at pH 7.79). Controlled application of Na2 CS3 by the use of a platinum redox electrode was also connected with obtaining treated wastewater containing low concentrations of metals (Cu 0.019 mg/L, Sn <0.05 mg/L, Ni <0.0098 mg/L at pH 9–9.5 and E= -142 mV in the laboratory scale and Cu 0.058 mg/L, Sn <0.005 mg/L, Ni 0.011 mg/L at pH 9.14 and E= +10 mV in the industrial scale). Changing the value of redox potential of treated wastewater by dosing Na2 CS3 made it possible to control the precipitation process on laboratory and industrial scale by the use of a platinum redox electrode. Controlled application of Na2 CS3 can be used to remove Cu(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) from industrial effl uent containing chelating compounds like Na2 EDTA, NH3(aq), thiourea, Na3 MGDA and Na4 GLDA.
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil with Methylobacterium extorquens as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The copper concentrations in the samples of the polluted river water and CuCl2 solutions treated by the natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil (ECS) have been determined by spectrophotometric method. Firstly, the surface of ECS was modified with M. extorquens and surface functionality was increased. Then, the adsorption of Cu (II) from solution phases was studied with respect to varying metal concentration, pH, and temperature and agitation time. The maximum adsorption of Cu (II) for natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil was observed at pH: 5.0. At different copper concentrations, copper adsorption analysis was performed on 1 g using clay soil or modified clay soil. Maximum adsorption of Cu (II) was obtained as 45.7 and 48.1 mg g-1 at initial concentration (50 mg/50 mL) and optimal conditions by natural and bacteria-modified clay soil, respectively. The copper concentration was decreased in the substantial amount of the leachates solutions of natural and bacteria-modified clay soil. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu (II) ions. The results showed that modified clay soil had a high level of adsorption capacity for copper ion. The various thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were analyzed to observe the nature of adsorption. The structural properties of the natural and bacteria-modified-ECS have been characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. Consequently, it was concluded that the bacteria-modified clay soil could be successfully used for the removal of the copper ions from the aqueous solutions.
Accurate prediction of power loss distribution within an electrical device is highly desirable as it allows thermal behavior to be evaluated at the early design stage. Three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to calculate dc and ac copper losses in the armature winding at high-frequency sinusoidal currents. The main goal of this paper is showing the end-winding effect on copper losses. Copper losses at high frequency are dominated by the skin and proximity effects. A time-varying current has a tendency to concentrate near the surfaces of conductors, and if the frequency is very high, the current is restricted to a very thin layer near the conductor surface. This phenomenon of nonuniform distribution of time-varying currents in conductors is known as the skin effect. The term proximity effect refers to the influence of alternating current in one conductor on the current distribution in another, nearby conductor. To evaluate the ac copper loss within the analyzed machine a simplified approach is adopted using one segment of stator core. To demonstrate an enhanced copper loss due to ac operation, the dc and ac resistances are calculated. The resistances ratio ac to dc is strongly dependent on frequency, temperature, shape of slot and size of slot opening.
The paper presents an FE model of coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena in Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (LSPMSMs). An algorithm for solving equations of a discrete model using the FEM has been presented. On the basis of this algorithm the author’s personally developed software for the analysis of coupled electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in the LSPMS motors was elaborated. This software was used to analyze the start-up process of motors with identical stator and rotor magnetic circuits and different materials of the starting cage. The start-up process of motors with the squirrel-cage made of aluminum and copper was considered. The influence of temperature on the start-up process has been taken into account. The results of simulation tests were compared with the results of measurements.