In the work results of research on electrodischarge machining (EDM) of titanium alloy Ti10V2Fe3Al with (α + β) structure were presented. Preliminary heat treatment of samples allows to obtain different morphology and volume fraction of the α phase. The main goal of research was to assessment of the material microstructure impact on EDM technological factors (ie. material removal rate, tool wear) and morphology of technological surface layer. Electrodischarge machining is alternative and increasingly used method of titanium alloys machining. Research allowed to indicate the possibilities and limitations of use EDM in this area. It is especially important in the aspect of parts produced for aircraft industry and related requirements for the technological surface layer quality.
In this study, low-carbon cast steel was reinforced with TiC by SHS-B method, also known as combustion synthesis during casting method. The composite zone was then subjected to surface remelting by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) method. The remelting operation was realized manually, at 150 A current magnitude. Microstructure, phase composition and hardness of remelted zone were investigated. XRD results reveal that the phases of the composite zone in initial state consist of TiC and Feα. Surface remelting resulted in formation of thick layers containing TiC carbides, Feα and Feγ. Microstructural examination has shown strong refinement of titanium carbides in remelted zone and complete dissolution of primary titanium carbides synthetized during casting. The average diameter of carbides was below 2 μm. The structural changes are induced by fast cooling which affects crystallization rate. The hardness (HV30) of the remelted layer was in the range between 250 HV and 425 HV, and was lower than hardness in initial state.
This study presents an analysis of aluminium cast iron structure (as-cast condition) which are used in high temperatures. While producing casts of aluminium iron, the major influence has been to preserve the structure of the technological process parameters. The addition of V, Ti, Cr to an Fe-C-Al alloy leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in an aluminium cast iron structure and thereby improve the production process. V and Ti additions to aluminium cast iron allow the development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened the Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.
The aeronautical industry is a sector constantly looking for new materials and equipment because of its tendency to expand quickly. The Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is used frequently in the aeronautic, aerospace, automobile, chemical and medical industry because it presents high strength combined with low density (approximately 4.5 g/cm3), good creep resistance (up to 550°C), excellent corrosion resistance, high flexibility, good fatigue and biocompatibility. As a result of these properties, this titanium alloy is considered an excellent material for manufacturing structural parts in the aircraft industry for modern aeronautic structures, especially for airframes and aero-engines. But its use is also problematic because the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy manifests hydrogen embrittlement, by means of hydrides precipitation in the metal. The Ti6Al4V alloy becomes brittle and fractures because of hydrogen diffusion into metal and because titanium hydrides appear and create pressure from within the metal, thus generating corrosion. Because of titanium hydrides, the titanium alloy suffers from reduced ductility, tensile strength and toughness, which can result in fractures of aeronautical parts. This poses a very serious problem for aircrafts. In this paper, rapid hydrogen embrittlement is presented along with XRD, SEM and TEM analysis. Its goal is to detect the presence of titanium hydrides and to spot the initial cracks in the metallic material.
Refinement is one of the most energy consuming technological process, aimed at obtaining mineral raw materials of the proper grain size. Cast structural elements such as jaws or hammers in crushing machines operate under conditions of an intensive wear. The data indicate that 80 % of failures of machines and devices is caused by wearing of rubbing surfaces. This problem became the subject of several scientific and industrial investigations carried out in the whole world in order to produce materials ultra- wear resistant. Methods allowing to obtain wear resistant composite castings are discussed in the hereby paper. Within the performed research microstructures of the produced composite zones were presented and the comparative analysis with regard to mechanical and functional properties of local composite reinforcements in relation to the commercial alloys of increased wear resistance was performed. The results show almost twenty five times increase in wear resistance compared to manganese cast steel containing 18 % Mn.
Metal alloys with matrix based on an Fe-Al system are generally considered materials for high-temperature applications. Their main advantages are compact crystallographic structure, long-range ordering and structural stability at high temperatures. These materials are based on an intermetallic phase of FeAl or Fe3Al, which is stable in the range from room temperature up to the melting point of 1240°C. Their application at high temperatures is also beneficial because of the low cost of production, very good resistance to oxidation and corrosion, and high mechanical strength. The casting alloy the structure of which includes the FeAl phase is, among others, highaluminium cast iron. This study has been devoted to the determination of the effect of vanadium and titanium on the transformation of the high-aluminium cast iron structure into an in-situ FeAl-VC composite.
The paper deals with possibility to improve operating performance of cast-iron heat exchangers by providing them with a copper alloy (CuTi2Cr) with the use of the flame spraying method. A test exchanger was cast of a gray cast iron with vermicular graphite in ferriticpearlitic matrix obtained in production conditions at KAW-MET Iron Foundry with the wire method used to vermicularize the material. The test samples were two plates cast in sand molds, of which one was given a flame-sprayed CuTi2Cr coat on one side. The operating performance of such model cast-iron heat exchangers, with and without CuTi2Cr coating, was tested on a set-up for determining the heat flow rate (thermal power) transferred by the heat exchanger to environment. The obtained results indicate that the value of the heat flow rate characterizing the CuTi2Cr-coated cast-iron heat exchanger was by 10% higher compared to the flow rate of heat conveyed to environment by the heat exchanger without coating.
The study presents the results of research on the development of composite zones in castings based on the intermetallic phase of Ni3Al. Composite zones were obtained by placing packets with substrates for the reaction of titanium carbide in a foundry mould. To provide a variable carbides content in the composite zone, two compositions of the packets were prepared. The first packet contained only substrates for the reaction of TiC synthesis; the second one also contained a filler. The resulting composite zones in castings were examined for the filler effect on changes in the volume fraction, size and morphology of carbides in the zone. In addition, the effect of filler on the mechanical properties of the zone was verified, observing changes of Vickers hardness in this area. It was found that the presence of filler in the composition of the packet for synthesis reduced the content of carbides, as well as their size and morphology. Lower surface content of carbides reduced hardness of the zone, which enabled smooth control of the mechanical properties. At the same time, the use of the selected filler did not disturb the course of the TiC carbide synthesis.
Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel
In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ballon-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.
Fe-40wt% TiB2 nanocomposites were fabricated by mechanical activation and spark-plasma sintering of a powder mixture of iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH2). The powder mixture of (FeB, TiH2) was prepared by high-energy ball milling in a planetary ball mill at 700 rpm for 3 h followed by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) at various conditions. Analysis of the change in relative sintered density and densification rate during sintering showed that a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction occurs to form TiB2 from FeB and Ti. A sintered body with relative density higher than 98% was obtained after sintering at 1150°C for 5 and 15 min. The microstructural observation of sintered compacts with the use of FE-SEM and TEM revealed that ultrafine particulates with approximately 5 nm were evenly distributed in an Fe-matrix. A hardness value of 83 HRC was obtained, which is equivalent to that of conventional WC-20 Co systems.
A nanocrystalline Ti alloy powder was fabricated using cryomilling. The grain size and lattice strain evolution during cryomilling were quantitatively analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) based on the Scherrer equation, Williamson-Hall (W-H) plotting method, and size-strain (S-S) method assuming uniform deformation. Other physical parameters including stress and strain have been calculated. The average crystallite size and the lattice strain evaluated from XRD analysis are in good agreement with the result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
The results are based on two experimental high-manganese X98MnAlSiNbTi24-11 and X105MnAlSi24-11 steels subjected to thermo-mechanical treatment by hot-rolling on a semi-industrial processing line. The paper presents the results of diffraction and structural studies using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showing the role of Nb and Ti micro-additives in shaping high strength properties of high-manganese austenitic-ferritic steels with complex carbides. The performed investigations of two experimental steels allow to explain how the change cooling conditions after thermo-mechanical treatment of the analysed steels affects the change of their microstructure and mechanical properties. The obtained results allow assessing the impact of both the chemical composition and the applied thermo-mechanical treatment technology on the structural effects of strengthening of the newly developed steels.
The aim of that work was the evaluation of the quality of welded connections elements (welds) from the 30HGS steel and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The metallographic, factographic tests were used, and measurements of microhardness with the Vickers method. In the head weld of the 30HGS steel there were non-metallic partial division and bubbles observed. The average microhardness in the head connection was 320 HV0.1. There was no significant increase/decrease observed of microhardness in the head influence zone of the weld. There was a good condition of head connections observed, in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. In the head weld of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy there were single, occasional non-metallic interjections and bubbles observed. There were no cracks both on the weld, and on the border of the heat influence zone. The value of microhardness in head connection was in the range 300÷445 HV0.1. Reveal a very good condition of the head connections in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. The factographic tests prove the correctness of welded connections done and then heat treatment in case of steel and titanium alloy.
Inexpensive synthesis of electroceramic materials is required for efficient energy storage. Here the design of a scalable process, flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), for synthesis of size-controlled nanomaterials is investigated focusing on understanding the role of air entrainment (AE) during their aerosol synthesis with emphasis on battery materials. The AE into the enclosed FSP reactor is analysed quantitatively by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and calculated temperatures are verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Various Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) particle compositions are made and characterized by N2 adsorption, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction while the electrochemical performance of LTO is tested at various charging rates. Increasing AE decreases recirculation in the enclosing tube leading to lower reactor temperatures and particle concentrations by air dilution as well as shorter and narrower residence time distributions. As a result, particle growth by coagulation - coalescence decreases leading to smaller primary particles that are mostly pure LTO exhibiting high C-rate performance with more than 120 mAh/g galvanostatic specific charge at 40C, outperforming commercial LTO. The effect of AE on FSP-made particle characteristics is demonstrated also in combustion synthesis of LiFePO4 and ZrO2.
In this work, a design equation was presented for a batch-recirculated photoreactor composed of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with immobilised TiO2-P25 nanoparticle thin films on glass beads, and a continuous-flow stirred tank (CFST). The photoreactor was studied in order to remove C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7), a monoazo anionic dye from textile industry, by means of UV/TiO2 process. The effect of different operational parameters such as the initial concentration of contaminant, the volume of solution in CFST, the volumetric flow rate of liquid, and the power of light source in the removal efficiency were examined. A rate equation for the removal of AO7 is obtained by mathematical kinetic modelling. The results of reaction kinetic analysis indicate the conformity of removal kinetics with Langmuir-Hinshelwood model (kL-H = 0.74 mg L-1 min-1, Kads = 0.081 mg-1 L). The represented design equation obtained from mathematical kinetic modelling can properly predict the removal rate constant of the contaminant under different operational conditions (R2 = 0.963). Thus the calculated and experimental results are in good agreement with each other.