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Number of results: 7
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Abstract

Macrozooplankton was collected at 63 stations by means of a Bongo sampler in the layer from the surface to a depth of 200 m. Wet formalin volume of siphonophors, polychaetes, pteropods, copepods, amphipods, euphausiids, chaetognaths, salps, and the remaining animals was determined; the distribution of major species was presented. Low diversity in macrozooplankton composition was observed in the study area. As far as biomass was concerned, salps predominated in the whole area; they occurred in exceptionally large quantities Large amounts of krill were also observed in some areas. Besides salps and krill, other euphausiids had the greatest share in the zooplankton; they were more abundant than copepods. Macrozooplankton biomass without salps and krill was low when compared with the values known from literature.
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Abstract

Macrozooplankton was caught at 17 stations with a Bongo net from the 0-200 m layer. The stations were located near the pack ice edge, between Elephant Islands and the South Orkney Islands. The cluster analysis of 58 recognized taxa allowed to distinguish three regions: the western — near Elephant Island, the middle and the western one — at the South Orkney Islands. No clear difference in macrozooplankton species composition at the open sea stations and those near pack ice was found. The average biomass of macrozooplankton in the investigated area amounted to 82.8 g/1000 m3 (95% CL: 47.2-94.2 g/1000m3). Macrozooplankton was dominated by salps and krill. The biomass and 95% confidence limits were 52.0 g/1000 m3 (15.6-59.2 g/1000 m3) and 26.1 g/1000 m3 (8.4-30.4 g/1000 m3), respectively. Differences in the biomass distribution of some taxa in three distinguished regions were observed. Except of salps the biomass of particular taxa caught near the pack ice edge and the same taxa caught in stations distant from this edge were similar. The biomass of salps was evidently higher in most northern stations.
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Abstract

Zooplankton in the water column from the surface to bottom was studied. Copepods were the dominating organisms. Average zooplankton biomass was about 5 g in 1000 m3 . The highest zooplankton density occurred between 300 and 600 m. The influence of the Scotia Front on the horizontal and vertical distribution of zooplankton is discussed.
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Abstract

Two West Spitsbergen fiords, Hornsund (77°N) and Kongsfjorden (79°N) were compared with respect to their hydrology and zooplankton occurrence on the base of two summer surveys made in 1987 and 1988. Both fiords were found to be influenced by four types of masses: Atlantic Waters, Intermediate Atlantic Waters, Local Waters and Brackish Surface Waters, Intermediate Atlantic Waters, Local Waters and Brackish Surface Waters. The amount of fresh water in both fiords reached up to 10% of water volume of the uppermost water layers. Hornsund in August 1987 was richer in mesozooplankton biomass than Kongsfjorden in 1988. Estimated energie value of pelagic prey of marine birds was 180-500 KJ/100 m3 in Hornsund, and 130-200 in Kongsfjorden. Two major plankton communities were found in both fiords: Pseudocalanus community in the inner fiord basins and Calanus dominated community in the outer areas of the fiords. Plankton occurrence in fiords was not linked directly with the temperature — salinity patterns but rather with dynamic phenomena like upwellings and wind drift of surface waters.
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Abstract

High−frequency acoustic measurements supplemented by a modern optical method, Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC), allowed us to perform a comparative analysis through the application of a mathematical model. We have studied the correspondence between measured and modelled echoes from zooplankton aggregations consisted mainly of two Calanus species. Data were collected from the upper 50 m water layer within the hydrographical frontal zone on the West Spitsbergen Shelf. The application of a “high− −pass” model of sound scattering by fluid−like particles to the distribution of zooplankton sizes measured by LOPC resulted mostly in very good agreement between the measured (420 kHz BioSonics) and modelled values, except for cases with very low zooplankton abundance or with occurrence of stronger scatterers ( e.g. macrozooplankton, fish). An acoustic model validated for the elastic parameters of zooplankton confirmed that particles smaller than 1 mm in diameter, although highly abundant, did not contribute significantly to the sound scattering process at a frequency of 420 kHz. The implementation of diverse complementary methods has great potential to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution in zooplankton distribution studies; however, their compatibility has to be tested first.
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Abstract

Herve Cove, a small, shallow and partly isolated basin, is strongly influenced by glacial freshwater inlfow, bringing significant amount of mineral suspension. Its mean annual content amounted up to 46 mg dm-3. Sea anemone (Edwardsia sp.), bivalves (Yoldia eightsi, Laternula elliptica and Mysella sp.), amphipods (mostly Cheirimedon femoratus) a well as some species of polychaetes constituted almost 95% of zoobenthos biomass and 90% of abundance. Four different assemblages of benthic invertebrates, with total biomass ranging from 0.002 kg m-2 up to 1.7 kg m-2, were distinguished in this relatively small (about 12 ha) area. It seems that the freshwater impact influences the composition of an assemblage occurring close to the edge of a glacier. Relatively rich crustacean fauna was encountered in the shallow part of the cove near its entrance. Almost complete lack of echinoderms in Herve Cove, that are common in the shallow Antarctic sublittoral, should also be noted. Macrozooplankton of Herve Cove was dominated by Copepoda. The most frequent and abundant species were: Oithona similis, Ctenocalanus citer and Metridia gerlachei. Far less numerous Chaetognatha represented by three species, Ostracoda, Polychaeta, Pteropoda and Siphonophora constituted only 2.5% of all planktonie animals collected.
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Abstract

During a midwinter cruise north of 80oN to Rijpfjorden, Svalbard, the composition and vertical distribution of the zooplankton community were studied using two different samplers 1) a vertically hauled multiple plankton sampler (MPS; mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 200 μm) and 2) a horizontally towed Methot Isaacs Kidd trawl (MIK; mouth area 3.14 m2, mesh size 1500 μm). Our results revealed substantially higher species diversity (49 taxa) than if a single sampler (MPS: 38 taxa, MIK: 28) had been used. The youngest stage present (CIII) of Calanus spp. (including C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis) was sampled exclusively by the MPS, and the frequency of CIV copepodites in MPS was double that than in MIK samples. In contrast, catches of the CV-CVI copepodites of Calanus spp. were substantially higher in the MIK samples (3-fold and 5-fold higher for adult males and females, respectively). The MIK sampling clearly showed that the highest abundances of all three Thysanoessa spp. were in the upper layers, although there was a tendency for the larger-sized euphausiids to occur deeper. Consistent patterns for the vertical distributions of the large zooplankters (e.g. ctenophores, euphausiids) collected by the MPS and MIK samplers provided more complete data on their abundances and sizes than obtained by the single net. Possible mechanisms contributing to the observed patterns of distribution, e.g. high abundances of both Calanus spp. and their predators (ctenophores and chaetognaths) in the upper water layers during midwinter are discussed.
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