People rarely consider where their tap water comes from, or how much of it is actually available. At the same time, it is people who are most often responsible for water pollution. Problems involving the contamination of water-supply areas in Poland are scrutinized by an “intervention team” of experts at the Polish Hydrogeological Survey.
The last two decades have brought a significant modernization in methods of cultivation in greenhouses. Soilless cultures, isolated from soils, have become a common practice, similarly as fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) installations, although most of them are applied in the open system (with no recirculation), where excess nutrient solution is removed straight to soil. This situation was the reason why it was decided to conduct studies, extended over a period of many years, on the estimation of environmental pollution caused by discharged drainage waters containing mineral fertilizers in economically important cultures in Poland (anthurium, tomato, cucumber). On the basis of the chemical composition of drainage waters and amounts of nutrient solution spillway from culture beds data were estimated concerning pollution of the soil medium by the nutrient solution. The level of pollution was dependent on nutrient requirements of crops and the length of the vegetation period. The highest environmental pollution is caused by intensive tomato growing (in kg·month·ha-1): N-NO3 (up to 245), K (up to 402), Ca (up to 145) and S-SO4 (up to 102). A lesser threat is posed by metal microelements: Fe (up to 2.69), Mn (up to 0.19), Zn (up to 0.52) and Cu (up to 0.09). Lower contamination of the natural environment is generated in cultures with lower nutrient requirements (anthurium) and in the case of culture on organic substrates. With an increase in ecological awareness of producers recirculation systems should be implemented in the production practice, in which drainage waters do not migrate directly to soil, but are repeatedly used to feed crops.
Trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) are chemical compounds which pose a serious threat for human health. Their specific properties make it possible that these substances may linger in soil and water for many years. These are the reasons why wells with water designed for drinking purposes have been subject of monitoring since 2006. This paper presents the results of monitoring research conducted in the soil-water environment within the framework in third phase of an ecological audit of land. The ecological audit of land made it possible to identify the cause and degree of the degradation, and helped formulate rationale for remedy decisions pertaining to the land (remediation/reclamation). The objective of the paper was to determine the pollution status of the soil-water environment and, subsequently, monitor (in years 2008-2010) the contents of the hazardous substances, namely trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, within the area of the potential impact of metallurgical plant located in borders of the Main Underground Water Reservoir Wierzbica-Ostrowiec (GZWP 420) in in voivodeship Świętokrzyskie.
The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the chemical composition of shallow groundwater and its quality that have occurred in the last decade in an agriculturally used, heavily populated and characterized by a complex geological structure, catchment of the Stara Rzeka river, located in the ﬂysch part of the Outer Carpathians. Water samples were collected during 2013 from 19 still operating wells. Analyses of pH, electrolytic conductivity and chemical composition by ion chromatography were conducted. The obtained results were compared with the results of studies conducted in 2003 for the same wells. The quality of groundwater and its suitability for consumption was assessed based on the regulations currently existing in Poland. 21% of the wells still do not meet the requirements for drinking water in terms of at least one component. However, there was a decrease in the concentration of mineral forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in most of the wells and their mean concentration as compared to 2003 was reduced. In terms of physical and chemical characteristics groundwater of this region is typical of the hypergenic zone of the temperate climate. The highest concentrations were observed for Ca2+ and HCO3- ions, while K+ and Cl- were characterized by the largest variability. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the factors determining the quality and chemical composition of the analyzed waters include the composition of bedrock (mineralogy of the rock environment) and human economic activity, and that they have not been signiﬁcantly changed over the past decade.
The Timok River (202 km long, 4547 km2 basin area) is located in East Serbia. It is a right tributary of the Danube River and one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. On the basis of the data provided by the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper presents an analysis of water quality and pollution using the combined physico-chemical WPI index (Water Pollution Index) calculated for two periods - 1993-96 and 2006-2009 at four hydrological stations: Zaječar-Gamzigrad (Crni Timok River), Zaječar (Beli Timok River), Rgotina (Borska Reka River) and Čokonjar (Timok River). The following parameters were taken into consideration: dissolved O2, O2 saturation, pH, suspended sediments, Five Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODMn), nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ammonium, metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, Cd), sulphates and coliform germs. The average WPI values were calculated for the observed periods based on the comparison of the annual average values of the listed parameters and defined standard values for the I water quality class (according to the Regulation on the Hygienic Acceptability of Potable Water of the Republic of Serbia). The highest pollution degree was recorded in the Borska Reka River, where heavy metal levels (especially manganese and iron) were significantly increased. These metals are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily caused by copper mining). Also, increased values of the organic pollution indicators (ammonium, coliform germs, Five-Day Biological Oxygen Demand - BOD5) in the Borska Reka and the Timok rivers are the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.
The primary evaluation of the economic losses caused by water pollution in Shanghai in the year 2009 is made by classification approach in order to provide basis for decision of the relative water management policy. The result shows that the portion of water pollution losses in GDP of Shanghai was 2.7%, which was still lower than the average level of whole China despite of the local high population density and the scale of industry, suggesting to some extent the continuous attention in water protection paid by Shanghai government.
Landfill leachate makes a potential source of ground water pollution. Municipal waste landfill substratum can be used for removal of pollutants from leachate. Model research was performed with use of a sand bed and artificially prepared leachates. Effectiveness of filtration in a bed of specific thickness was assessed based on the total solids content. Result of the model research indicated that the mass of pollutants contained in leachate filtered by a layer of porous soil (mf) depends on the mass of pollutants supplied (md). Determined regression functions indicate agreement with empirical values of variable m′f. The determined regression functions allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of influence of the analysed independent variables (m′d, l, ω) on values of mass of pollutants flowing from the medium sand layer. Results of this research can be used to forecast the level of pollution of soil and underground waters lying in the zone of potential impact of municipal waste landfill.
In the study suitability of water quality index approach and environmetric methods in fi ngerprinting heavy metal pollution as well as comparison of spatial variability of multiple contaminants in surface water were assessed in the case of The Gediz River Basin, Turkey. Water quality variables were categorized into two classes using factor and cluster analysis. Furthermore, soil contamination index was adapted to water pollution index and used to fi nd out the relative relationship between the reference standards and the current situation of heavy metal contamination in water. Results revealed that surface water heavy metal content was mainly governed by metal processing, textile and tannery industries in the region. On the other hand, metal processing industry discharges mainly degraded quality of water in Kemalpasa and Menemen. Furthermore, Kemalpasa region has been heavily affected from tannery and textile industries effl uents. Moreover, pollution parameters have not been infl uenced by changes in physical factors (discharge and temperature). This study indicated the effectiveness of water quality index approach and statistical tools in fi ngerprinting of pollution and comparative assessment of water quality. Both methods can assist decision makers to determine priorities in management practices.
Nutrient pollution such as nitrate (NO3−) can cause water quality degradation in rivers used as a source of drinking water. This situation raises the question of how the nutrients have moved depending on many factors such as land use and anthropogenic sources. Researchers developed several nutrient export coefficient models depending on the aforementioned factors. To this purpose, statistical data including a number of factors such as historical water quality and land use data for the Melen Watershed were used. Nitrate export coefficients are estimates of the total load or mass of nitrate (NO3−) exported from a watershed standardized to unit area and unit time (e.g. kg/km2/day). In this study, nitrate export coefficients for the Melen Watershed were determined using the model that covers the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches. River retention coefficient was determined and introduced into the model as an important variable.
In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.