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Number of results: 25
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Abstract

Coal reserves in the Czech Republic are estimated to be 10 billion tons – hard coal about 37%, brown coal about 60% and lignite 3%. Hard coal is produced in Northern Moravia. In 2017 the production of hard coal was 5.5 million tons. Brown coal is mined in North-Western Bohemia − the production of brown coal in 2017 was 38.1 million tons. Significant quantities of hard coal are exported to: Slovakia, Austria, Germany and Hungary. In accordance with the National Energy Policy, coal will remain the main source of energy in the country in the future, despite the increased use of nuclear energy and natural gas. The government expects that in 2030 energy from coal will account for 30.5% of energy produced. There are five coal companies in the Czech Republic: OKD, a.s., the only hard coal producer and four brown coal mining companies: Severočeské Doly a.s., owned by ČEZ, the largest producer of brown coal, Vršanská uhelná a.s., with coal resources until 2055, Severní energetická a.s. with the largest brown coal reserves in the Czech Republic and Sokolovska uhelná a.s., the smallest mining company extracting lignite. OKD operates coal in two mines Kopalnia Důlní závod 1 – (consists of three mines: ČSA Mine, Lazy Mine, Darkov Mine) and Mine Důlní závod 2 (ttwo mines Sever, Jih). The article also presents a pro-ecological solution for the management of waste heaps after coal enrichment – a plant for the enrichment of coal waste from the Hermanice heap.
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Abstract

The possibility of the application of nontraditional method of greenhouse gas utilization by the injection of CO2 (sequestration) into porous geological deposits, treated as unconventional gas collectors, requires the fulfillment of basic criteria such as the impact on the environment and long term storage. The important issue is the physical behavior of the deposit during the porous structure saturation phase by carbon dioxide. What should be mentioned first and foremost is: the availability of CO2 transport along the porous structure and adsorption capacity. The work presents the results of water vapor sorption on coal samples from selected Hard Coal Mines of a differentiated carbon content. The received results were presented in the form of sorption and desorption isotherms performed in a temperature of 303 K. It was additionally described with a BET adsorption isotherm. Based on sorption data, a specific surface area was calculated, in accordance with BET theory. The amount of the adsorbed water vapor molecules for the analyzed coal samples was dependent on the degree of metamorphism. The obtained isotherms can be described as type II according to the BET classification. Volumetric type apparatus -adsorption- microburette liquid was used for the sorption experiments. Water vapor sorption in relation to coals allows for the quantitative determination of primary adsorption centers as a measure of adsorbed molecule interconnections with the adsorbent surface. Based on the BET adsorption equation, out of water vapor isotherms, the amount of adsorption active centers, which potentially may take part in CO2 adsorption in coal seams during injection of this gas, was determined. The sorption capacity of coals is determined by the degree of metamorphism, which also has very large impact on the sorption capacity of the deposit.
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Abstract

The paper presents selected issues related to the development of international coal markets. World consumption of coal dropped for the second year in a row in 2016, primarily due to lower demand from China and the U S. The share of coal in global primary energy consumption decreased to 28%. World coal production accounted to 3.66 billion toe and it was lower by 6.2% when compared to the previous year. More than 60% of this decline took place in China. The decline in global production was more than four times higher than the decrease in consumption. The sufficiency of world resources of coal are estimated at 153 years – that is three times more than the sufficiency of oil and gas resources. After several years of decline, coal prices increased by 77% in 2016. The current spot prices are at the level of $80/t and are close to the 2014 prices. In the European market, after the first half of the year, coal prices reached the level of around 66% higher than in the same period of the last year. The average price in the first half amounted to PLN 12.6/GJ, which is close to the 2012 prices. The share of spot trade in the total purchase amount accounted to approx. 20%. Prices in futures contracts can be estimated on the basis of the Japan-Australia contracts prices and prices in supplies to power plants located in Germany. On average, the prices in supplies to these power plants were higher by approximately 9% in the years 2010–2016 and prices in Australia – Japan contracts were 12% higher than CIF ARA prices in 2017. Global energy coal trade reached about 1.012 billion tonnes in 2016. In 2019, a decline by 4.8% is expected primarily due to the expected reduction in the demand in major importing countries in Asia.
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Abstract

One of the parameters which enables the evaluation of carbonaceous material is the thermal effect of wetting. The value of the heat of wetting provides information about the surface energy and the texture of the materials immersed in the wetting liquid. Knowledge of the heat of wetting of the carbonaceous materials is used to research their sorption properties, to characterize the structure and to determine the surface area. A method of me asuring the wetting of the carbonaceous materials as one of the methods to evaluate the carbonaceous materials was proposed. On the basis of research which was conducted, one determined the heat of wetting black coal from the Brzeszcze mine by methyl alcohol and lignites from the Turów and Bełchatów mine. One of activated carbons furnished by the Gryfskand company (WD-extra) was selected for the purpose of the comparison. The enthalpy of immersion was calculated on the basis of the results, the surface of the carbonaceous materials that were studied. It was revealed that the energetic effects of wetting depend both upon the microporous structure and the chemical nature of the adsorbent. The greatest heat of wetting calculated per 1g of the carbonaceous material, which has the most developed surface area and micropore volume, was obtained for the activated carbon. However, the heat of wetting does not increase proportionally to the surface area. The study revealed that the thermal effects of wetting for fossil coal decreases with the increasing of the surface area. The linear relationship was obtained for the three samples which were studied. The highest thermal effects (ΔT) and heat of wetting (Q) among the fossil coals was determined for the lignite from the Bełchatów mine, even though this coal had the least-developed porous structure. One may discern a clear influence of the swelling process upon the measured thermal effects on the basis of this sample.
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Abstract

Coal combustion processes are the main source of mercury emission to the environment in Poland. Mercury is emitted by both power and heating plants using hard and brown coals as well as in households. With an annual mercury emission in Poland at the level of 10 Mg, the households emit 0.6 Mg. In the paper, studies on the mercury release in the coal and biomass combustion process in household boilers were conducted. The mercury release factors were determined for that purpose. For the analyzed samples the mercury release factors ranged from 98.3 to 99.1% for hard coal and from 99.5% to 99.9% for biomass, respectively. Due to the high values of the determined factors, the amount of mercury released into the environment mainly depends on the mercury content in the combusted fuel. In light of the obtained results, the mercury content in the examined hard coals was 6 times higher than in the biomass (dry basis). Taking the calorific value of fuels into account, the difference in mercury content between coal and biomass decreased, but its content in coal was still 4 times higher. The mercury content determined in that way ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 μg/MJ for hard coal and from 0.1 to 0.5 μg/MJ for biomass, respectively. The main opportunity to decrease the mercury emissions from households is offered by the use of fuels with a mercury content that is as low as possible, as well as by a reduction of fuel consumption. The latter could be obtained by the use of modern boilers as well as by the thermo-modernization of buildings. It is also possible to partially reduce mercury emissions by using dust removal devices.
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Abstract

Po energetyce zawodowej sektor drobnych odbiorców jest drugim ważnym konsumentem węgla energetycznego w Polsce, w latach 2005–2015 zużywającym 10,3–14,3 mln ton węgla (15– –22% w skali kraju). Statystycznie wyróżniane są w nim trzy grupy konsumentów: gospodarstwa domowe, rolnictwo oraz tzw. pozostali odbiorcy, z których najbardziej znaczącą rolę odgrywają gospodarstwa domowe (77–81% rocznego zużycia węgla przez cały sektor). Udział rolnictwa wynosił 12–14% (1,4–1,8 mln ton węgla na rok), a pozostałe kilka procent – grupa pozostałych odbiorców (0,9–1,1 mln ton). Zużycie węgla w całym sektorze, jak również w każdej z grup statystycznych zróżnicowane jest zarówno pod względem regionalnym, jak również wojewódzkim. Pod względem wolumenu największe zużycie węgla przypada na gospodarstwa domowe z regionu N-E (1,9– –2,9 mln ton). W przypadku rolnictwa są to regiony północne (57–62%; łącznie: 0,8–1,1 mln ton węgla/rok). W artykule przeprowadzono także szacunkowy podział mieszkań wg trzech nośników głównych nośników energii zużytych w celach grzewczych: paliwa stałe (dominuje węgiel kamienny), ciepło sieciowe i gaz ziemny. Stwierdzono, że pod względem regionalnym największym udziałem mieszkań opalanych węglem kamiennym dysponują dwa regiony (reg. S-W i N-E; po 26%). Obliczono także koszty ogrzewania przykładowego domu jednorodzinnego położonego na wsi. Wzięto pod uwagę te nośniki energii, które są najbardziej dostępne dla obszarów wiejskich. W wyniku analizy stwierdzono, że węgiel kamienny byłby jednym z najtańszych paliw. Koszty rocznego ogrzewania domu węglem grubym, czy ekogroszkiem nie przekroczyłyby 3 tys. złotych/rok (wg cen z 2016 r.).
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Abstract

The paper presents selected issues related to the development of international coal markets. World consumption of coal dropped for the second year in a row in 2016, primarily due to the lower demand from China and the US. The share of coal in global primary energy consumption decreased to 28%. World coal production accounted to 3.66 billion toe and it was lower by 6.2% when compared to the previous year. More than 60% of this decline took place in China. The decline in global production was more than four times higher than the decrease in consumption. The sufficiency of the world resources of coal are estimated at 153 years – that is three times more than the sufficiency of oil and gas resources. After several years of decline, coal prices increased by 77% in 2016. The current spot prices are at the level of $80/ton and are close to the 2014 prices. In the European market, after the first half of the year, coal prices reached the level of around 66% higher than in the same period of the last year. The average price in the first half amounted to PLN 12.6/GJ, which is close to the 2012 prices. The share of spot trade in the total purchase amount accounted to approx. 20%. Prices in futures contracts can be estimated on the basis of the Japan-Australia contracts prices and prices in supplies to power plants located in Germany. On average, the prices in supplies to these power plants were higher by approximately 9% in the years 2010 – 2016 and prices in Australia – Japan contracts were 12% higher than CIF ARA prices in 2017. Global energy coal trade reached about 1.012 billion tons in 2016. A decline by 4.8% is expected in 2019 primarily due to the expected reduction in demand in major importing countries in Asia.
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Abstract

Krajowa energetyka od lat oparta jest na węglu kamiennym i brunatnym. Kilkudziesięcioprocentowy udział elektrowni opalanych węglem kamiennym i brunatnym w strukturze wytwórczej wymusza konieczność zakupu tych paliw do produkcji energii elektrycznej w otoczeniu zmiennych cen surowców, kształtowanych na międzynarodowym rynku. Ceny węgla kamiennego są wypadkową wielu zmiennych i zależą nie tylko od światowej sytuacji geopolitycznej czy ekonomicznej, ale mogą być również skutkiem klęsk żywiołowych. Ceny na rynkach międzynarodowych są ze sobą ściśle powiązane. Szczególnie wysokość cen kształtowanych przez największych producentów i eksporterów (między innymi przez Indonezję, Australię czy Chiny) mają wpływ na ceny surowca na rynku europejskim. Są one także punktem odniesienia dla cen węgla brunatnego na lokalnych rynkach. W niniejszym artykule przeanalizowano wpływ zmienności cen węgla kamiennego na rynkach światowych na zmienność krajowych cen paliw (kosztów zakupu) wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii elektrycznej, cen sprzedaży energii przez jednostki wytwórcze oraz cen energii elektrycznej dla odbiorców końcowych. Sprawdzono także czy zmienność cen węgla kamiennego ma wpływ na zmienność cen energii dla przedsiębiorstw przyłączonych do sieci na parametrach wysokiego napięcia i dla gospodarstw domowych. Dodatkowo zbadano także korelację pomiędzy analizowanymi parami zmiennych. Niniejszą analizę wpływu wybranych zmiennych przeprowadzono przy użyciu podstawowych miar statystycznych. W drugiej części badań przeprowadzona zostanie poszerzona analiza wzajemnego wpływu (przyczynowości) zmiany analizowanych parametrów z wykorzystaniem zaawansowanych narzędzi statystycznych.
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Abstract

The purpose of the research was mapping, inventorization, and valorization of coal mining waste dumps from the mines of JSW SA company, for the needs of recovery of coal from the dump material as well as the reclamation and management of examined facilities. The valorization of post-mining waste dumps has been carried out using a methodology which considers the problems of reclamation, management, accessibility of the dumps as well as environmental hazards connected with disposing of mining and preparation wastes on the ground surface. An inventorization of 10 coal mining waste dumps coming from 6 mines of JSW SA including in their range 7 deposits: Borynia, Jastrzębie, Zofiówka, Budryk, Knurów, Szczygłowice and Pniówek was carried out. The source material within the localization of particular dumps was obtained from archival materials coming from coal mines and municipalities where the dumps are located. Verified data has been drawn on topographical map, which results in the map of coal mining waste dumps. The results of the valorization of the dumps comprise the defining of: the name of the dump, state of the dump, surface of the dump, accessibility, name of the coal mine from where the wastes come from, type of technical and biological reclamation and possibilities of coal recovery, which have been brought on the drawn map. Basing on collected and elaborated data, an attempt of defining of potential possibilities of recovery of coal from the dumps and connection of coal quality in the deposits of JSW SA and in waste material was made. The results of the research showed that in spite of preliminary information that a majority of the investigated dumps may be considered as potential facilities for coal recovery, ultimately the recovery is economically justified only in several cases (5 facilities).
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Abstract

The coal fed to gravity enrichment consists of coals coming from different deposits and exploitation fronts. These coals differ in quality parameters, especially the amount of gangue (stone) changing over time. This results in the instability of work, especially jiggers, which have a relatively low accuracy assessed by probable scattering or imperfection rates. This deteriorates the quality of the concentrate obtained, the quality parameters of which change over time. The improvement of jiggers work would be possible by averaging the feed. This process is practically impossible due to the failure to design such a node during plant construction, which are, in most cases, directly related to the shaft. In the article, the authors propose to solve the process of averaging the feed before directing it to the enrichment process in jiggers by introducing its deshaling in vibratory- air separators of the FGX type.
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Abstract

Studies on the quality of bituminous coal are mainly focused on physico-chemical analysis, examining the ash content, sulphur content, volatile matter content, moisture content, and the Net Calorific Value of coal. Until now, the above mentioned parameters form the basis of the Polish Standard PN-82/87002, on the basis of which individual types of bituminous coal are determined. In addition, an elemental analysis, providing information about the content of primary elements in the organic matter of solids, i.e. coal, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur, is carried out for the selected samples. This issue has been studied by many authors, which undoubtedly provide invaluable knowledge due to the huge amount of data, but, as the authors themselves indicate, the knowledge of the petrography of coal, coking properties (Probierz et al. 2012) and finally the coke obtained from individual coal types (based on tests carried out using the Karbotest installation or the so-called „box tests” performed in the coke oven battery) is still very limited. The article discusses the impact of petrographic composition on the quality of metallurgical coke. The analysis was performed using samples of coking coal from the following mines: Pniówek, Zofiówka, Borynia, and Krupiński. The mentioned coal types are used to produce coke mixtures used for the production of coke in the Przyjaźń and Radlin coking plants. Based on the rank of coal and physicochemical parameters, the mentioned coal types were classified according to the Polish classification and the UN/ECE International Classification of In-Seam Coals (UN/ECE 1995). The prediction of thermomechanical properties of coke (CSR and CRI) performed according to the original CCP method were compared with the results obtained using the classical method of Nippon Steel Corporation.
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Abstract

Coal mining is one of the most important sectors of the Polish industry. It can be said that the coal is a national raw material. This results in Poland being a pioneer in the European Union in terms of coal mining as well as its use in the production of electricity and heat. There are many companies in Poland which have been established and developed around the coal mining industry aimed at coal extracting. The operations of those companies depends on the condition of the mining companies and their cooperation with them: commercial, service and advisory, called referred to as “mining supporting companies”. The article focuses on the results of a survey carried out in mining supporting companies, such as mining machinery and equipment manufacturers, mining-related service companies and mining-related research and development institutions. The authors evaluated the relationship and dependence of those companies on the mining industry. It was assumed that the measure of the mining supporting companies condition is the overall quantity of public related payments contributed to the state budget and local budgets. In the article, the authors raised the problem of the size of losses for public finances, as a result of the significant limitations of financial flows from the mining companies. The surveyed companies are those associated with the Polish Mining Chamber of Industry and Commerce. As a result, the authors prepared conclusions regarding the dependence of the mining supporting companies on the situation of the mining subsector.
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Abstract

In the processes of coal mining, preparation and combustion, the rejects and by-products are generated. These are, among others, the rejects from the coal washing and dry deshaling processes as well as the coal combustion by-products (fly ash and slag). Current legal and industry regulations recommend determining the content of mercury in them. The regulations also define the acceptable content of mercury. The aim of the paper was to determine the mercury content in the rejects derived from the coal cleaning processes as well as in the combustion by-products in respect of their utilization. The mercury content in the representative samples of the rejects derived from the coal washing and dry deshaling processes as well as in the coal combustion by products derived from 8 coal-fired boilers was determined. The mercury content in the rejects from the coal washing process varied from 54 to 245 μg/kg, (the average of 98 μg/kg) and in the rejects from the dry deshaling process it varied from 76 to 310 μg/kg (the average of 148 μg/kg). The mercury content in the fly ash varied from 70 to 1420 μg/kg, (the average of 567 μg/kg) and in the slag it varied from 8 to 58 μg/kg (the average of 21 μg/kg). At the moment, in light of the regulations from the point of view of mercury content in the rejects from the coal preparation processes and in the coal combustion by-products, there are no significant barriers determining the way of their utilization. Nevertheless, in the future, regulations limiting the maximum content of mercury as well as the acceptable amount of leachable mercury may be introduced. Therefore, preparing for this situation by developing other alternative methods of using the rejects and by-products is recommended.
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Abstract

Zjawisko tąpnięcia występujące w kopalniach węgla kamiennego wynika z wielu czynników naturalnych cechujących skały oraz czynników technicznych związanych z technologią i intensywnością eksploatacji. W artykule przeprowadzono analizę statystyczną i badania korelacyjne wybranych parametrów, w 129 miejscach polskich kopalń Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego, w których odnotowano tąpnięcia. Wyselekcjonowano „mierzalne” i najbardziej kształtujące stan zagrożenia tąpaniami parametry, tj: głębokość eksploatowanego pokładu, w którym odnotowano skutki tąpnięć (Ht), grubość warstwy wstrząsogennej (Hww) oraz skalę ich odziaływania w postaci minimalnej odległości od pokładu, pomiędzy ogniskiem a skutkiem wstrząsu sejsmicznego (Hos). Do analizy tych parametrów wybrano korelację liniową Pearsona oraz korelację rangową S pearmana. Analiza 129 przypadków tąpnięć pozwoliła na weryfikację wzajemnego wpływu wartości oraz rang rozpatrywanych parametrów na stan zagrożenia tymi zjawiskami. Badanie korelacyjne Pearsona wykazało słabą zależność liniową pomiędzy parametrem głębokości eksploatacji pokładu (Ht) i minimalną odległością pomiędzy ogniskiem a skutkiem wstrząsu powodującego tąpnięcia (Hos). Współzależności liniowe pozostałych parametrów nie spełniły warunku istotności korelacji. Korelacja nieliniowa S pearmana wykazała słabą korelację parametrów: minimalnej odległości od pokładu pomiędzy ogniskiem a skutkiem wstrząsu sejsmicznego (Hos) oraz grubością warstwy wstrząsogennej (Hww), a także nikłą zależność pomiędzy pozostałymi parametrami. Celem pracy była weryfikacja czynników kształtujących stan zagrożenia tąpaniami, występujących w Metodzie Rozeznania Górniczego (MRG str. 3. L.p. 1 i 4)), opublikowanej w roku 2007 w postaci Instrukcji Nr 20 pt.: „Zasady stosowania metody kompleksowej i metod szczegółowych oceny stanu zagrożenia tąpaniami w kopalniach węgla kamiennego”. MRG wskazuje na określoną wartość punktową każdego zdefiniowanego czynnika w poszczególnych zakresach ich zmienności. Proponowane zmiany, nie naruszając istoty i podstawowych złożeń MRG, wskazują na możliwość powtarzalności niektórych parametrów, które mogą wpływać na stan zagrożenia tąpaniami, a które za względu na charakter górotworu są „niezmienialne” i określane jako m.in. podstawowe czynniki geologiczne złoża.
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Abstract

Nowadays, actions allowing for a reduction of anthropogenic mercury emission are taken worldwide. Great emphasis is placed on reducing mercury emission from the processes of energochemical coal conversion, mainly from the coal combustion processes. One of the methods which enable a reduction of anthropogenic mercury emission is the removal of mercury from coal before its conversion. It should be pointed out that mercury in hard coal may occur both in the organic and mineral matter. Therefore, a universal method should allow for the removal of mercury, combined in both ways, from coal. In the paper, a concept of the hybrid mercury removal process from hard coal was presented. The idea of the process is based on the combination of the coal cleaning process using wet or dry methods (first stage) and the thermal pretreatment process at a temperature in the range from 200 to 400 °C (second stage). In the first stage, a part of mercury occurring in the mineral matter is removed. In the second stage, a part of mercury occurring in the organic matter as well as in some inorganic constituents characterized by a relatively low temperature of mercury release is removed. Based on the results of the preliminary research, the effectiveness of the decrease in mercury content in coal in the hybrid process was estimated in the range from 36 to 75% with the average at the level of 58%. The effect of the decrease in mercury content in coal is much more significant when mercury content is referred to a low heating value of coal. So determined, the effectiveness was estimated in the range from 36 to 75% with the average at the level of 58%.
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Abstract

Significant quantities of coal sludge are created during the coal enrichment processes in the mechanical processing plants of hard coal mines (waste group 01). These are the smallest grain classes with a grain size below 1 mm, in which the classes below 0.035 mm constitute up to 60% of their composition and the heat of combustion is at the level of 10 MJ/kg. The high moisture of coal sludge is characteristic, which after dewatering on filter presses reaches the value of 16–28% (Wtot r) (archival paper PG SILESIA). The fine-grained nature and high moisture of the material cause great difficulties at the stage of transport, loading and unloading of the material. The paper presents the results of pelletizing (granulating) grinding of coal sludge by itself and the piling of coal sludge with additional material, which is to improve the sludge energy properties. The piling process itself is primarily intended to improve transport possibilities. Initial tests have been undertaken to show changes in parameters by preparing coal sludge mixtures (PG SILESIA) with lignite coal dusts (LEAG). The process of piling sludge and their mixtures on an AGH laboratory vibratory grinder construction was carried out. As a result of the tests, it can be concluded that all mixtures are susceptible to granulation. This process undoubtedly broadens the transport possibilities of the material. The grain composition of the obtained material after granulation is satisfactory. Up to 2 to 20 mm granules make up 90–95% of the product weight. The strength of the fresh pellets is satisfactory and comparable for all mixtures. Fresh lumps subjected to a test for discharges from a height of 700 mm can withstand from 7 to 14 discharges. The strength of the pellets after longer seasoning, from the height of 500 mm, shows different values for the analyzed samples. The values obtained for hard coal sludge and their blends with brown coal dust are at the level from 4 to 5 discharges. The strength obtained is sufficient to determine the possibility of their transport. At this stage of the work it can be stated that the addition of coal dust from lignite does not cause the deterioration of the material’s strength with respect to clean coal sludge. Therefore, there is no negative impact on the transportability of the granulated material. As a result of mixing with coal dusts, it is possible to increase their energy value (Klojzy-Karczmarczyk at al. 2018). The cost analysis of the analyzed project was not carried out.
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Abstract

Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne jest jednym z najważniejszych elementów bezpieczeństwa państwa. W perspektywie najbliższych lat sektor energetyczny w Polsce stoi przed poważnymi wyzwaniami. Zapotrzebowanie na energię elektryczną systematycznie wzrasta, natomiast poziom rozwoju infrastruktury wytwórczej i przesyłowej nie nadąża za tymi zmianami. Przyszłość i rozwój energetyki to jeden z najważniejszych problemów w polityce krajowej. Odpowiedzialność sektora energetycznego za zmiany klimatyczne na Ziemi oraz troska o zapewnienie wystarczających ilości energii w najbliższych latach, stanowią główne wyzwania, jakie stoją obecnie przed energetyką. Problemy, z którymi ma zmierzyć się obecnie polski przemysł elektroenergetyczny, wymuszają podjęcie działań zmierzających w kierunku rozwoju i budowy nowych technologii wytwórczych. Eksploatowane w Polsce elektrownie węglowe są źródłem stabilnych i ciągłych dostaw energii. Wobec braku odpowiednich zdolności magazynowania energii, utrzymywanie jednostek konwencjonalnych staje się kwestią kluczową. Jest to istotne z punktu widzenia utrzymania bezpieczeństwa energetycznego, zwłaszcza wobec konieczności rozwoju źródeł odnawialnych, szczególnie tych o niestabilnym i stochastycznym charakterze pracy. W referacie przedstawiono stan obecny i przyszły krajowego sektora wytwórczego. W perspektywie najbliższych kilkunastu lat będzie się on opierał na energetyce konwencjonalnej, jednak z coraz większym udziałem źródeł odnawialnych. Konieczne jest zatem opracowanie nowej strategii energetycznej, która wskaże, w jakim kierunku będzie zmierzać krajowy sektor wytwórczy. Jest to tym bardziej istotne, że nowe uwarunkowania prawne związane szczególnie z ochroną środowiska zdecydowanie ograniczają stosowanie paliw konwencjonalnych w energetyce. Kierunki rozwoju energetyki są kreowane przede wszystkim przez wymagania, jakie stawiają nowe regulacje prawne Unii Europejskiej. Obecna polityka klimatyczno-energetyczna UE oddziałuje głównie na energetykę węglową, nakładając obowiązek zmniejszenia emisji gazów cieplarnianych. Wymóg ten stawia polską gospodarkę energetyczną w szczególnie trudnej sytuacji. Przeszkodę w realizacji dotrzymania standardów unijnych w sektorze wytwórczym stanowi wysoki stopień zależności od węgla. Paliwo węglowe pokrywa podstawę obciążenia w krajowym systemie energetycznym. Dlatego też w najbliższych latach nie jest możliwe całkowite odejście od energetyki węglowej z uwagi na zaspokojenie potrzeb na energię elektryczną i ciepło, a przede wszystkim z uwagi na bezpieczeństwo energetyczne kraju.
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Abstract

The article compares the management of energy resources in Poland and Ukraine over the period 2000–2017. The analysis took changes in the volume of coal, oil and natural gas resources into consideration. The indicators of supplies of these fuels for Poland and Ukraine have additionally been compared with selected EU countries. In order to assess energy security of Poland and Ukraine, the changes in the primary energy consumption have been analyzed in general in first order, then the possibilities of meeting the demand for natural gas, coal and oil have been determined based on the domestic extraction of individual energy resources. Such a comparison indicates the dominant role of coal in Poland while the extraction of oil and natural gas meets the domestic demand to a greater extent in Ukraine. Over the period 2000-2017, trends in primary energy consumption were different; a 17% increase was noted in Poland, while a nearly 40% decline was noted in Ukraine. The main factors responsible for radical changes in fuel and energy management in Ukraine have been identified: military operations in the east of the country and the annexation of Crimea, demographic changes. These events had a negative impact especially on the volume of hard coal mining in Ukraine; the significant increase in imports from 5.36 to 19.14 million tons in 2011-2017 was necessary for balancing. The balance of foreign exchange for electricity was also compared. Over the past years, this comparison has been favorable for Ukraine, where the dominance of electricity exports over imports is noticeable, which generated revenues of over USD 200 million in 2017.
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Abstract

Przyszłość i rozwój energetyki to jeden z najważniejszych problemów zarówno w polityce krajowej, jak i światowej. Odpowiedzialność sektora energetycznego za zmiany klimatyczne na Ziemi oraz troska o zapewnienie wystarczających ilości energii w najbliższych latach, stanowią główne wyzwania, jakie stoją obecnie przed energetyką. Eksploatowane w Polsce elektrownie węglowe są źródłem stabilnych i ciągłych dostaw energii. Idealnie sprawdzają się jako jednostki rezerwowe dla źródeł odnawialnych. Wobec braku odpowiednich zdolności magazynowania energii, utrzymywanie w gotowości jednostek konwencjonalnych staje się w kontekście utrzymania bezpieczeństwa energetycznego kwestią kluczową. W referacie przedstawiono stan obecny krajowego sektora wytwórczego. W perspektywie najbliższych kilkunastu lat dalej będzie się on opierał na energetyce konwencjonalnej, jednak z coraz większym udziałem źródeł odnawialnych. Konieczne jest jednak opracowanie nowej strategii energetycznej, która wskaże, w jakim kierunku będzie zmierzać krajowy sektor wytwórczy. Jest to tym bardziej istotne, że nowe uwarunkowania prawne związane szczególnie z ochroną środowiska zdecydowanie ograniczają stosowanie paliw konwencjonalnych w energetyce.
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Abstract

Polskie górnictwo węgla kamiennego charakteryzuje się występowaniem praktycznie wszystkich, typowych dla eksploatacji podziemnej zagrożeń naturalnych, zwłaszcza tzw. zagrożeń katastrofogennych. Ujawnianie się tych zagrożeń wywołuje niebezpieczne zdarzenia, w wyniku których niejednokrotnie dochodzi do wypadków, w tym wypadków śmiertelnych. Wysoki poziom zagrożeń naturalnych może ograniczyć prowadzenie eksploatacji lub nawet doprowadzić do zaniechania wybierania rejonów dotkniętych ich skutkami. Wyłączenie z eksploatacji takich części złoża może z kolei zmniejszyć zdolności wydobywcze kopalń, a w niektórych przypadkach nawet skrócić ich żywotność. W artykule scharakteryzowano skalę występowania zagrożeń: metanowego, wybuchem pyłu węglowego, pożarami endogenicznymi, zawałami, tąpaniami, wyrzutami metanu i skał oraz wodnego, wskazujac także na możliwość ich koincydencji. Na podstawie statystyk Wyższego Urzędu Górniczego, dotyczące niebezpiecznych zdarzeń i wypadków śmiertelnych wywołanych zagrożeniami naturalnymi w latach 2000–2016 analizowano częstość ich uaktywniania i wypadkogenność.Na podstawie tej analizy można stwierdzić: - Pod względem liczby niebezpiecznych zdarzeń najczęstszymi były pożary endogeniczne, tąpnięcia i odprężenia, zapalenia i wybuchy metanu oraz zawały skał, a najrzadziej dochodziło do wdarć wody, wyrzutów metanu i skał oraz wybuchów pyłu węglowego. - Najwięcej wypadków śmiertelnych miało miejsce w wyniku wybuchów metanu i wybuchów pyłu węglowego, a znaczną liczbę wywołały tąpnięcia i zawały. Najmniej wypadków spowodowały wdarcia wody, pożary endogeniczne oraz wyrzuty metanu i skał. - Za najbardziej katastrofogenne należy uznać zagrożenie metanowe i wybuchem pyłu węglowego, choć zdarzenia wynikajace z ujawniania się tych zagrożeń charakteryzowały się relatywnie małą częstością występowania. Przeprowadzona ocena potwierdza znaczący wpływ katastrofogennych zagrożeń naturalnych na stan bezpieczeństwa pracy w kopalniach węgla kamiennego.
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Abstract

The research of development capabilities is a fundamental of strategic issues, which has to be taken into consideration by coal mines. This is particularly difficult in the current environment, which is determined by its crisis situation. In such conditions, it is necessary to take difficult decisions, and serious, strategic challenges into account, which allow for the crisis to be overcome, for the renewal and economic effectiveness of the operation of these coal mines, which have potential to grow, and closing the coal mines, which have not potential to grow. Due to the effects of such decisions, which concern not only coal mines but also the Silesian region, it is essential to prepare information to support them and promote rational choices. This is related to the issue of research for development possibilities. The article presents considerations related to the subject of research for development possibilities of coal mines in a crisis situation. Taking the results of literature study into account, the model of research process was developed, and identified the research issues concerning the following: - the identification of external factors which determine the possibility of development of the Polish mines and drawing a schedule of their changes in the future, - the identification of internal factors which determine the possibility of development of the Polish mines, - developing a way for the assessment of the development potential of the coal mines, to show appropriate strategic options and action programmes for these options, - determining possible strategic options and corresponding schedules, appropriate for the specific nature of the mines. The proposition of their solutions, which were obtained in the process of using the specific methods and research tools, allowed the guidelines in terms of research of development capabilities of coal mines to be presented.
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Abstract

The underground mining of coal deposits in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) re-sults in an imbalance in the distribution of the stress in the rock mass, both in the immediate and distant surroundings of mining excavations. The occurrence of seismic tremors, among others, is the consequence of this process,. The intensities of seismic phenomena, which occur in several regions of the GZW (Bytomian Basin, Main Saddle, Main Basin, Kazimierzowska Basin, and the Jejkowice Basin) are very diverse, ranging from tremors unrecognizable by humans to strong tremors of the nature of weak earthquakes (Patyńska and Stec 2017). During the period of 15 years, i.e. from 2001 to 2015, the level of seismic activity changed and de-pended on both the intensity of the excavation work and the variability of the lithological and tectonic structures. On the other hand, the seismic activity analysis has shown that in recent years, despite a decrease in total output, seismic activity and rockburst hazard have increased. One of the rea-sons was the increase in mining output. Almost half of the output came from coal seams under the rockburst hazard. This resulted in an increase in the number of great energy tremors with the energy of 107, 108 and 109 J. It has been shown that the amount of energy tremors has a high impact on the level of the rockburst hazard. Between 2001 and 2015, as many as 20 rockburst were caused by seismic tremors above 107 J with 42 total phenomena (Patyńska 2002–2016). The purpose of characterizing the causes of this phenomenon was determined by the parameters characterizing the structure of the rock mass in places where the rockburst was recorded.
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Abstract

The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
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Abstract

Artykuł prezentuje najnowsze doświadczenia związane z zabezpieczaniem wyrobisk przyścianowych przeznaczonych do dwukrotnego wykorzystania dla dwóch sąsiednich ścian zawałowych. Główną intencją autorów było pokazanie roli, jaką odgrywają z jednej strony projekt obudowy, a z drugiej jakość jej wykonania. Wskazano na istotne aspekty związane z obudową ŁP oraz jej wzmocnieniami w poszczególnych etapach funkcjonowania wyrobiska, tj. drążenia, przechodzenia ścianą oraz okresem utrzymywania w jednostronnym otoczeniu zrobów. W artykule poruszono m.in. tematykę wykładki, wysokiego kotwienia, iniekcji górotworu oraz nowoczesnych wzmocnień wyrobiska za ścianą. Artykuł obok prezentacji technologii zawiera wiele aspektów praktycznych, wynikających z najnowszych doświadczeń, które w sposób decydujący wpływają na stateczność wyrobisk przyścianowych wykorzystywanych dwukrotnie. Przedstawiono dwa przykłady wyrobisk utrzymywanych za ścianą w skrajnie różnych warunkach, tj. pokłady cienkie i grube, poziome i nachylone, górotwór suchy i zawodniony. Prezentowane doświadczenia oparte są na wdrożeniach zrealizowanych w LW Bogdanka oraz PG Silesia. Artykuł zawiera także cenne uwagi w odniesieniu do zagrożeń naturalnych i ich wpływie na wybór technologii utrzymywania wyrobiska w jednostronnym otoczeniu zrobów. Artykuł stanowi podsumowanie kilkunastu lat prac badawczych i wdrożeniowych, a jednocześnie jest próbą uporządkowania tych doświadczeń i przekazania służbom kopalnianym tego, co jest najistotniejsze w omawianej technologii.
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Abstract

Work is being carried out on possibilities of limiting the content of mercury in hard coal products by gravity concentration of run-of-mine coal in the Branch of the Institute of Mechanized Construction and Rock Mining in Katowice and on the Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. Under domestic industrial conditions, gravity concentration is carried out with heavy medium liquids and in jigs. Preliminary - pilot studies have shown the possibility of mercury removal also by using the dry deshaling method involving vibratory air separators. Mercury is mainly found in the pyrite and the rubble formed by the mineral carbon, but also in the organic carbon. Some of it is located in layers of coal roof fields, which in the course of their exploitation go to coal. The mercury removal efficiency during the gravity concentration process will depend on the decomposition of the listed components in the density fractions. The paper presents the results of investigations of total mercury and total sulphur content in the separated coal fractions from four mines. These contents were determined in fractions: –1.5 g/cm3 (conventionally clean coal – concentrate), 1.5–1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally middlings) and +1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally rock – waste). The results are summarized in Tables 3–5 and in Charts 1–4. Conversely, graphs 5-8 show the relationship between mercury content and total sulphur content in the tested coal samples. The study, which can be called a preliminary analysis of the susceptibility of the coals to gravity concentration, showed that the dry deshaling method on the vibratory air separators would allow significant amounts of mercury accumulated in the middlings and waste fractions to be removed.
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