In this study, the vibration analysis of fully and partially treated laminated composite Magnetorheological (MR) fluid sandwich plates has been investigated experimentally. The natural frequencies of fully and partially treated laminated composite MR fluid sandwich plates have been measured at various magnetic field intensities under two different boundary conditions. The variations of natural frequencies with applied magnetic field, boundary conditions and location ofMRfluid pocket have been explored. Further, a comparison of natural frequencies of fully and partially treated MR fluid sandwich structure has been made at various magnetic field intensities.
Centrifugal pumps are used for different applications that include pressure boosting, wastewater, water supply, heating and cooling distribution and other industrial processes. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of mechanical vibrations of a centrifugal pump. The flow in this pump, which induces pressure pulsations and mechanical vibrations, have been monitored. Vibration measurements and data collection (overall vibrations levels and frequency spectrum) were extracted from the system. In addition, one of the methods used to study vibration amplitudes for this pump is forced response analysis. To study and analyze the pump system, the finite element analysis software (ANSYS) was applied. Depending on the analysis performed and investigations outcomes, the system natural frequency coincides with the vane-pass frequency (VPF) hazardously. To attenuate the system’s vibration, a vibration control element was used. The vibration levels were reduced by a factor of 2 for a tuned element as obtained from a forced harmonic response analysis of the pump system with absorber. It is shown that the inserted element allows the centrifugal pump to work in a safe operating range without any interference with its operation.
Two fundamental challenges in investigation of nonlinear behavior of cantilever beam are the reliability of developed theory in facing with the reality and selecting the proper assumptions for solving the theory-provided equation. In this study, one of the most applicable theory and assumption for analyzing the nonlinear behavior of the cantilever beam is examined analytically and experimentally. The theory is concerned with the slender inextensible cantilever beam with large deformation nonlinearity, and the assumption is using the first-mode discretization in dealing with the partial differential equation provided by the theory. In the analytical study, firstly the equation of motion is derived based on the theory of large deformable inextensible beam. Then, the partial differential equation of motion is discretized using the Galerkin method via the assumption of the first mode. An exact solution to the obtained nonlinear ordinary differential equation is developed, because the available semi analytical and approximated methods, due to their limitations, are not always sufficiently reliable. Finally, an experiment set-up is developed to measure the nonlinear frequency of oscillations of an aluminum beam within a domain of initial displacement. The results show that the proposed analytical method has excellent convergence with experimental data.
The present work focuses on a first study for a piezoelectric harvesting system, finalized to the obtaining of electrical energy from the kinetic energy of rainy precipitation, a renewable energy source not really considered until now. The system, after the realization, can be collocated on the roof of an house, configuring a “Piezo Roof Harvesting System”. After presenting a state of art of the harvesting systems from environmental energy, linked to vibrations, using piezoelectric structures, and of piezoelectric harvesting systems functioning with rain, the authors propose an analysis of the fundamental features of rainy precipitations for the definition of the harvesting system. Then, four key patterns for the realization of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system are discussed and analysed, arriving to the choice of a cantilever beam scheme, in which the piezoelectric material works in 31 mode. An electro-mechanical model for the simulation of performance of the unit for the energetic conversion, composed of three blocks, is proposed. The model is used for a simulation campaign to perform the final choice of the more suitable piezoelectric unit, available on the market, which will be adopted for the realization of the “Piezo Roof Harvesting System”.
To study the impact of suspended equipment on the ride comfort in a railway vehicle, a rigid flexible general model of such a vehicle is required. The numerical simulations is based on two different models, derived from the general model of the vehicle, namely a reference model of a vehicle with no equipment, and another model with six suspended elements of equipment mounted in various positions along the carbody. The objective of this paper arises from the observation that the literature does not contain any study that highlights the change in the ride comfort resulting exclusively due to the influence of equipment. The influence of the suspended equipment on the ride comfort is determined by comparing the ride comfort indices calculated in the carbody reference points, at the centre and above the two bogies, for a model with six elements of equipment and a model of the vehicle with no equipment.
The paper deals with the application of the extended Kalman filters in the control structure of a two-mass drive system. In the first step only linear extended Kalman filter was used for the estimation of mechanical state variables of the drive including load torque value. The estimation algorithm showed good robustness to mechanical parameters variations. For the system with some parameters changing in the wide range, simultaneous estimation of the state variables and chosen system parameters is required. For this reason the non-linear extended Kalman filter, which estimates simultaneously state variables and mechanical parameters of the two-mass drive system, was developed. Parameters of covariance matrices of used Kalman filters were set using the genetic algorithm. Both proposed estimators were investigated in simulation and experimental tests, in the open-loop operation and in the state-feedback control system of the two-mass system.
In the paper, the authors discuss the numerical and experimental modal analysis of the cantilever thin-walled beams made of a carbon-epoxy laminate. Two types of beams were considered: circumferentially asymmetric stiffness (i.e., CAS) and circumferentially uniform stiffness (i.e., CUS) beams. The layer-up configurations of the laminate were chosen to get a vibration mode coupling effect in both analysed cases. The aim of the paper was to perform the numerical and experimental modal analysis of the composite structures, when a flapwise bending with torsion coupling effect or flapwise-chordwise bending coupling effect took place. Firstly, numerical studies by the finite element method was performed. The numerical simulations were carried out by the Lanczos method in the Abaqus software package. The natural frequencies and the corresponding free vibration modes were determined. Next, the experimental modal analyses of the CAS and CUS beams were performed. The test stand was consisted of a special grip, two beams with an adhered holder, the LMS Scadas III system with a modal hammer and an acceleration sensor. Finally, the results of both methods were compared.
Complex structures used in various engineering applications are made up of simple structural members like beams, plates and shells. The fundamental frequency is absolutely essential in determining the response of these structural elements subjected to the dynamic loads. However, for short beams, one has to consider the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in order to evaluate their fundamental linear frequencies. In this paper, the authors developed a Coupled Displacement Field method where the number of undetermined coefficients 2n existing in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method are reduced to n, which significantly simplifies the procedure to obtain the analytical solution. This is accomplished by using a coupling equation derived from the static equilibrium of the shear flexible structural element. In this paper, the free vibration behaviour in terms of slenderness ratio and foundation parameters have been derived for the most practically used shear flexible uniform Timoshenko Hinged-Hinged, Clamped-Clamped beams resting on Pasternak foundation. The findings obtained by the present Coupled Displacement Field Method are compared with the existing literature wherever possible and the agreement is good.
In this paper, nonlinear free vibration analysis of micro-beams resting on the viscoelastic foundation is investigated by the use of the modified couple stress theory, which is able to capture the size effects for structures in micron and sub-micron scales. To this aim, the gov-erning equation of motion and the boundary conditions are derived using the Euler–Bernoulli beam and the Hamilton’s principle. The Galerkin method is employed to solve the governing nonlinear differential equation and obtain the frequency-amplitude algebraic equation. Final-ly, the effects of different parameters, such as the mode number, aspect ratio of length to height, the normalized length scale parameter and foundation parameters on the natural fre-quency-amplitude curves of doubly simply supported beams are studied.
The paper deals with the application of the feed-forward and cascade-forward neural networks to mechanical state variable estimation of the drive system with elastic coupling. The learning procedure of neural estimators is described and the influence of the input vector size and neural network structure to the accuracy of state variable estimation is investigated. The quality of state estimation by neural estimators of different types is tested and compared. The simple optimisation procedure is proposed. Optimised neural estimators of the torsional torque and the load machine speed are tested in the open-loop and closed-loop control structure of the drive system with elastic joint, with additional feedbacks from the shaft torque and the difference between the motor and the load speeds. It is shown that torsional vibrations of the two-mass system are damped effectively using the closed-loop control structure with additional feedbacks obtained from the developed neural estimators. The simulation results are confirmed by laboratory experiments.
Reliable monitoring for detection of damage in epicyclic gearboxes is a serious concern for all industries in which these gearboxes operate in a harsh environment and in variable operational conditions. In this paper, autonomous multidimensional novelty detection algorithms are used to estimate the gearbox’ health state based on vectors of features calculated from the vibration signal. The authors examine various feature vectors, various sources of data and many different damage scenarios in order to compare novel detection algorithms based on three different principles of operation: a distance in the feature space, a probability distribution, and an ANN (artificial neural network)-based model reconstruction approach. In order to compensate for non-deterministic results of training of neural networks, which may lead to different network performance, the ensemble technique is used to combine responses from several networks. The methods are tested in a series of practical experiments involving implanting a damage in industrial epicyclic gearboxes, and acquisition of data at variable speed conditions.
In this paper, thermally-excited, lateral free vibration analysis of a small-sized Euler-Bernoulli beam is studied based on the nonlocal theory. Nonlocal effect is exerted into analysis utilizing differential constitutive model of Eringen. This model is suitable for design of sensors and actuators in dimensions of micron and submicron. Sudden temperature rise conducted through the thickness direction of the beam causes thermal stresses and makes thermo-mechanical properties to vary. This temperature field is supposed to be constant in the lateral direction. Temperatures of the top and bottom surfaces of the system are considered to be equal to each other. Governing equation of motion is derived using Hamilton’s principle. Numerical analysis of the system is performed by Galerkin’s approach. For verification of the present results, comparison between the obtained results and those of benchmark is reported. Numerical results demonstrate that dynamic behavior of small-sized system is been effected by temperature shift, nonlocal parameter, and slenderness ratio. As a result, taking the mentioned parameters into account leads to better and more reliable design in miniaturized-based industries.