“The influenza virus behaves just as it seems to have done for five hundred or a thousand years, and we are no more capable of stopping epidemics or pandemics than our ancestors were,” wrote Charles Cockburn from the World Health Organization back in 1973. Is his remark still just as apt today?
Vaccination is a common routine for prevention and control of human and animal diseases by inducing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in the body. Through vaccinations, smallpox and some other diseases have been eradicated in the past few years. The use of a patho- gen itself or a subunit domain of a protein antigen as immunogens lays the basis for traditional vaccine development. But there are more and more newly emerged pathogens which have expe- rienced antigenic drift or shift under antibody selective pressures, rendering vaccine-induced im- munity ineffective. In addition, vaccine development has been hampered due to problems includ- ing difficulties in isolation and culture of certain pathogens and the antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). How to induce strong antibody responses, especially neu- tralizing antibody responses, and robust cell-mediated immune responses is tricky. Here we re- view the progress in vaccine development from traditional vaccine design to reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology and present with some helpful perspectives on developing novel vac- cines.
Poland’s National Vaccination Program is an essential element in the strategy of prevention of infectious diseases and their complications, here considered with a particular focus on combination vaccines and the need for the Program’s further expansion.
The application of immune serum is one of the most efficient method used formerly in the protection of raised piglets’/weaners’ health . The objective of the study was to determine specific antibody response during hyperimmunization of fatteners with a self-prepared subunit vaccine, and to propose production method of immune serum against Gram-negative bacteria antigens. The vaccine was administered every two weeks, 4 times. Individual and pooled serum samples were assayed for IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against Histophilus somni recombinant Hsp60, H.somni rOMP40 and Pasteurella multocida LPS. Additionally total serum IgG and haptoglobin concentrations were measured. Two weeks after the first vaccination IgM antibody raised significantly against H.s. rOMP40 and LPS, whereas after 4 weeks it increased against rHsp60 antigens. Anti-LPS IgM antibody raised up stepwise till the end of the observation, but IgM antibody against H.s. rHsp60 and H.s. rOMP40 decreased in further samplings. A significant raise in IgG class H.s. rHsp60- -antibody was found 4 weeks after the first immunization and a similar raise against two remain- ing antigens after 6 weeks. The intensity of the reaction increased till the end of the experiment. The raise in IgA antibody level was observed only for H.s. rHsp60 antigen. Clinically observed, proper animal health and welfare were confirmed by haptoglobin concentration, which remained in physiological range. At least 4 booster doses were necessary to obtain hyperimmune serum containing a high level of antibodies against examined antigens. The number of immunizations influenced response profiles for specific IgM, IgG, IgA antibodies.