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Abstract

Green spaces are an integral element of urban structures. They are not only a place of rest for their users, but also positively affect their well-being and health. The eff ect of these spaces, is the better, the smoother they create larger urban layout – stings of greenery. The introduction of urban greenery can and should be one of the basic elements of revitalization. Often, however, greenery is designed without multi-aspect analysis, enabling understanding of conditions and the use of existing potential in a given place. The use of computational design in conjunction with the use of generally available databases, such as numerical SRTM terrain models, publicly available OSM map database and EPW meteorological data, allows for the design of space in a more comprehensive way. These design methods allow better matching of the greenery design in a given area to specific architectural, urban and environmental conditions.
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Abstract

The article presents the urban layout, which is a best-preserved example of industrial estates in northern Italy. The subject of the research is a public space of the Crespi d’Adda settlement in the Province of Bergamo in Lombardy. Particular attention is paid to green areas occurring there, and their current use. Program of the public areas was very varied. The main role, besides the factory, held the public park, which is an important compositional and ideological. element of the layout. Research task was to show on example of Crespi, the current situation of former settlements in northern Italy, which are for the author reference material for settlements analyzed in Poland.
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Abstract

The vegetation of allotment gardens is an important element of urban green areas and constitutes a habitat where many groups of insects exist, including aphids. This research involved the monitoring of winged morphs of aphids in allotment gardens in the area of Poznań with the use of Moericke traps. The fauna structure of aphids in two large allotment gardens was demonstrated by comparing the activity of winged morphs of aphids in 2000–2001 and 2014–2015. The vegetation of these gardens was accompanied by the rich fauna of aphids. For four growing seasons, 113 species or groups of aphid species were captured with the traps. Major changes were reported in the structure of the collected fauna in the period of time when the research was conducted. The differences concerned particular positions of collected species in aphid communities. The abundance of Anoecia corni, Aphis sambuci, Phorodon humuli and Periphyllus testudinaceus increased, and now hold the position of subdominants of the communities, whereas Myzus persicae and Hyalopterus pruni decreased in comparison with the situation more than ten years ago. Rhopalosiphum padi still remains an eudominant in the communities. The main reason for this phenomenon is thought to be due to changes in the vegetation composition of gardens because the gardens are being used differently. The production function has changed to recreation.
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