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Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis postulating that the supplementation of turkey diets with Cu nanoparticles can lower dietary inclusion levels of Cu without compromising the growth rate and antioxidant status of turkeys. The experiment was carried out on 648 one-day-old Hybrid Converter turkeys divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group, in a two-factorial design with 3 dietary inclusion levels of Cu (20, 10 and 2 mg/kg) and 2 dietary sources of Cu - copper sulfate (Cu-SUL) and Cu nanoparticles (Cu-NP). At 42 days of age, blood samples were collected from 2 birds per replicate (12 birds per group), after slaughter livers were collected for analyses. Blood and liver samples were assayed for: Cu, Zn, Ca, P, Mg, GLU, TP, ALB, UREA, TAG, TC, UA, ALT, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, SOD, GPx, CAT, VIT C, FRAP, GSH+GSSG, LOOH, MDA. The results of this experiment demonstrate that a decrease in the dietary inclusion levels of Cu from 10 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg does not compromise the growth performance of turkeys, but weakens antioxidant defense mechanisms. A Cu dose of 20 mg/kg induces oxidation reactions and has a much more inhibitory effect on the antioxidant defense system than dietary Cu content of 2 mg/kg. In turkeys, dietary supplementation with Cu-NP has a more beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant status compared with Cu-SUL. The results of analyses examining the antioxidant and metabolic status of young turkeys indicate that 10 mg/kg is the optimal dietary inclusion level of Cu.
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Abstract

The Telbesmi Formation, at the northern margin of the Arabian Plate, Turkey, is composed of alternating darkbrown, pinky-brown fluvial arkosic sandstone/mudstones with thin-bedded cherty limestones and channel conglomerates. The formation contains rare and poorly diversified trace fossils. The siltstone/sandstone beds of levels 1 and 2 of the formation yielded, however, a moderately diverse assemblage composed of: Cochlichnus isp., Palaeophycus isp., Planolites beverleyensis, Teichichnus isp. and ?Treptichnus rectangularis. This assemblage, made up of traces left by deposit feeding organisms, represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies. Treptichnus rectangularis and Palaeophycus isp., of the assemblage, can be considered markers for the base of the Cambrian in southeast Turkey.
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Abstract

The possibility of construction disputes can be reduced, but they cannot be avoided due to the uncertain and risky nature of the building industry. Conflicts between construction parties often have very unfavourable effects, such as cost increases, poor construction quality and time extension in the schedule. Lots of studies have been carried out in order to try and avoid these disagreements. However, there are no common resolution tools or techniques due to the improving conditions and scope of contracted works. Advanced methods and dispute reasons should be fully monitored and updated for the applicable solutions. This paper discusses the current major constructional dispute reasons in Turkey. The questionnaire method was applied within the scope of this study. The questionnaire documents were randomly distributed to 80 contractors to analyse major dispute reasons in Turkey. Analysis of the questionnaire results indicates that the major current dispute causes are poor quality of performed works, delays in progress payments, inefficient site management, poorly written contracts and design mistakes.
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