The purpose of this paper is to focus on the loss separation of non-grain-oriented electrical steels used for speed-variable rotating electrical machines. The impact of laser-cutting, used in prototype manufacturing and of flux density harmonics, occurring locally in the lamination, on the loss distribution is studied in detail. Iron losses occurring under operation can physically be separated in different loss components. In this paper, a frequency-based loss model with parameters identified for single-sheet tester specimens, cut in strips of different widths, is therefore used. Moreover, a time-domain approach considers loss distributions occurring from higher harmonics. Hysteresis losses having high sensitivity to cut edge effects are calculated by the well-known Jiles-Atherton model adapting the frequency-based loss parameters. The model is validated by free-curve measurements at a single-sheet tester. It has been shown that the studied elliptical hysteresis model becomes inaccurate particularly for specimens with small strip widths with similar dimensions as teeth of electrical machine laminations. The incorrect mapping of losses occurring from minor hysteresis loops due to higher harmonics is concluded. The results showconsequently that both, the impact of a cut edge effect and local distributions of flux density harmonics need to be considered in terms of accurate iron loss prediction of electrical machine design.
The paper presents a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in the liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes. The proposed method considers the model of collector tube as one with distributed parameters. In the suggested method one tube of the collector is taken into consideration. In this model the boundary conditions can be time-dependent. The proposed model is based on solving the equation describing the energy conservation on the fluid side. The temperature of the collector tube wall is determined from the equation of transient heat conduction. The derived differential equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method of iterative character. All thermo-physical properties of the operating fluid and the material of the tube wall can be computed in real time. The time-spatial heat transfer coefficient at the working fluid side can be also computed on-line. The proposed model is suitable for collectors working in a parallel or serpentine tube arrangement. As an illustration of accuracy and effectiveness of the suggested method the computational verification was carried out. It consists in comparing the results found using the presented method with results of available analytic solutions for transient operating conditions. Two numerical analyses were performed: for the tube with temperature step function of the fluid at the inlet and for the tube with heat flux step function on the outer surface. In both cases the conformity of results was very good. It should be noted, that in real conditions such rapid changes of the fluid temperature and the heat flux of solar radiation, as it was assumed in the presented computational verification, do not occur. The paper presents the first part of the study, which aim is to develop a mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in liquid flat-plate solar collectors. The experimental verification of the method is a second part of the study and is not presented in this paper. In order to perform this verification, the mathematical model would be completed with additional energy conservation equations. The experimental verification will be carry out in the close future.
The recently developed special unity Mach number dispersion model prescribes the corrections to heat transfer coefficients which are simple functions of the dispersive Peclet numbers. They can be determined through the residence time measurements. An evaluation method is described in which the measured input and response concentration profiles are numerically Laplace transformed and evaluated in the frequency domain. A characteristic mean Peclet number is defined. The method is also applied to the parabolic dispersion model and the cascade model. A calculated example of a tube bundle with maldistribution and backflow demonstrates the suitability of the evaluation method.
The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.
Under steady-state conditions when fluid temperature is constant, temperature measurement can be accomplished with high degree of accuracy owing to the absence of damping and time lag. However, when fluid temperature varies rapidly, for example, during start-up, appreciable differences occur between the actual and measured fluid temperature. These differences occur because it takes time for heat to transfer through the heavy thermometer pocket to the thermocouple. In this paper, a method for determinig transient fluid temperature based on the first-order thermometer model is presented. Fluid temperature is determined using a thermometer, which is suddenly immersed into boiling water. Next, the time constant is defined as a function of fluid velocity for four sheated thermocouples with different diameters. To demonstrate the applicability of the presented method to actual data where air velocity varies, the temperature of air is estimated based on measurements carried out by three thermocouples with different outer diameters. Lastly, the time constant is presented as a function of fluid velocity and outer diameter of thermocouple.
The paper investigates Bayesian approach to estimate generalized true random-effects models (GTRE). The analysis shows that under suitably defined priors for transient and persistent inefficiency terms the posterior characteristics of such models are well approximated using simple Gibbs sampling. No model re-parameterization is required. The proposed modification not only allows us to make more reasonable (less informative) assumptions as regards prior transient and persistent inefficiency distribution but also appears to be more reliable in handling especially noisy datasets. Empirical application furthers the research into stochastic frontier analysis using GTRE models by examining the relationship between inefficiency terms in GTRE, true random-effects, generalized stochastic frontier and a standard stochastic frontier model.