The aim of the article is a preliminary assessment of the possibility of using ATES (Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage) technology for the seasonal storage of heat and cold in shallow aquifers in Poland. The ATES technology is designed to provide low-temperature heat and cold to big-area consumers. A study by researchers from the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands indicates very favorable hydrogeological and climate conditions in most of Poland for its successful development. To confirm this, the authors used public hydrogeological data, including information obtained from 1324 boreholes of the groundwater observation and research network and 172 information sheets of groundwater bodies (GWBs). Using requirements for ATES systems, well-described in the world literature, the selection of boreholes was carried out in the GIS environment, which allowed aquifers that meet the required criteria to be captured. The preliminary assessment indicates the possibility of the successful implementation of ATES technology in Poland, in particular in the northern and western parts of the country, including the cities of: Gdańsk, Warsaw, Wrocław, Bydgoszcz, Słupsk, and Stargard.
The article shows the proposed solution of the objective function for the seasonal thermal energy storage system. In order to develop this function the technological and economic assumptions were used. In order to select the optimal system configuration mathematical models of the main elements of the system were built. Using these models, and based on the selected design point, the simulation of the entire system for randomly generated outside temperatures was made. The proposed methodology and obtained relationships can be readily used for control purposes, constituting model predicted control (MPC).
The aim of this document is to present the topic of modeling district heating systems in order to enable optimization of their operation, with special focus on thermal energy storage in the pipelines. Two mathematical models for simulation of transient behavior of district heating networks have been described, and their results have been compared in a case study. The operational optimization in a DH system, especially if this system is supplied from a combined heat and power plant, is a diﬃcult and complicated task. Finding a global financial optimum requires considering long periods of time and including thermal energy storage possibilities into consideration. One of the most interesting options for thermal energy storage is utilization of thermal inertia of the network itself. This approach requires no additional investment, while providing significant possibilities for heat load shifting. It is not feasible to use full topological models of the networks, comprising thousands of substations and network sections, for the purpose of operational optimization with thermal energy storage, because such models require long calculation times. In order to optimize planned thermal energy storage actions, it is necessary to model the transient behavior of the network in a very simple way – allowing for fast and reliable calculations. Two approaches to building such models have been presented. Both have been tested by comparing the results of simulation of the behavior of the same network. The characteristic features, advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models have been identified. The results can prove useful for district heating system operators in the near future.