This article presents the validation process of a brake FE model by means of temperature measured on a special stand using infrared technology. Unlike many other publications, the authors try to show the interaction between measurement technology and numerical modeling rather than only nice, perfectly correlated graphs. Some difficulties in choosing and using validation parameters are also pointed out and discussed. Finally, results of FE analyses are compared with measured data, followed by explanation of applied numerical technology and estimation of validation process effectiveness.
The paper presents the application of liquid crystal thermography for temperature determination and visualisation of two phase flow images on the studied surface. Properties and applications of thermochromic liquid crystals are discussed. Liquid crystals were applied for two-dimensional detection of the temperature of the heating foil forming one of the surfaces of the minichannel along which the cooling liquid flowed. The heat flux supplied to the heating surface was altered in the investigation and it was accompanied by a change in the color distribution on the surface. The accuracy of temperature measurements on the surface with liquid crystal thermography is estimated. The method of visualisation of two-phase flow structures is described. The analysis of monochrome images of flow structures was employed to calculate the void fraction for some cross-sections. The flow structure photos were processed using Corel graphics software and binarized. The analysis of phase volumes employed Techsystem Globe software. The measurement error of void fraction is estimated.
Photovoltaic panels have a non-linear current-voltage characteristics to produce the maximum power at only one point called the maximum power point. In the case of the uniform illumination a single solar panel shows only one maximum power, which is also the global maximum power point. In the case an irregularly illuminated photovoltaic panel many local maxima on the power-voltage curve can be observed and only one of them is the global maximum. The proposed algorithm detects whether a solar panel is in the uniform insolation conditions. Then an appropriate strategy of tracking the maximum power point is taken using a decision algorithm. The proposed method is simulated in the environment created by the authors, which allows to stimulate photovoltaic panels in real conditions of lighting, temperature and shading.
This article presents a linear strain measurement method insensitive to temperature variations and using fibre Bragg gratings. Two Bragg gratings were applied with periods selected to obtain partial coverage of their spectrum characteristics. One of the gratings was subjected to a tension strength. Placing both gratings in one thermal chamber allowed - through ensuring the same thermal conditions - to obtain insensitivity of the entire scheme to temperature variations. The gratings were recorded on the same optical fibre and reacted to temperature variations in the same degree. Value of strain was indicated based on the transmission spectrum characteristic of two grating schemes. The use of transmission, not reflectance, characteristics of the gratings allowed for a direct measurement of the spectrum, without having to use a coupler or optical circulators, and at the same time, this allowed to simplify the strain detection scheme. We proposed applying the continuous wavelet transform with characteristics of the spectrum scheme of two gratings for improvement of static properties. Especially, the thermal linearity and stability of the sensor was improved. For a strain range up to 750 μe, the non-linearity error of processing characteristic obtained was 0.45%. Thermal stability of the scheme proposed was defined as relative sensitivity of the power to temperature variations. The mean value of such relative sensitivity of the scheme proposed in the temperature scope of 21ºC-95ºC, amounted to 0.195.
This paper presents a method of using a sensor with uniform Bragg grating with appropriately generated zone chirp. The presented method can be used for measuring two physical quantities, namely strain and temperature. By providing the same temperature sensitivity and different sensitivity to strain of two parts of a sensor, and experimental measurement of qualities of the proposed system and its calibration (experimental determination of sensitivity), verification of the results obtained from laboratory tests and the possibility of its practical implementation has been confirmed. The sensor grating was placed in such a way that its half was in the zone of a variable value of axial strain caused by changes of the cross-section of the sample. The other half, however, was in the zone of a constant cross-section of the sample and of constant value of strain, caused by the force stretching the sample. The obtained errors of non-linearity of processing characteristics for measuring strain and temperature of the proposed system were 2.7% and 1.5% respectively, while coefficients of sensitivity to strain and temperature were 0.77 x 10-6 m/e and 4.13 x 10-12 m/K respectively. The maximum differences between the values obtained from the indirect measurement and the set values were 110 μe for strain and 3.8°C for temperature, for a strain of 2500 μe and a temperature of 40°C.
Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.