Background and objective: Urological diseases represent a signifi cant health issue worldwide. Presented study aimed at assessing current urological knowledge and confi dence in performing urological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures among medical students at Jagiellonian University Medical College in Poland and compare it on diff erent stages of the undergraduate medical education. Material and methods: We designed an anonymous survey distributed among Polish students from 1st to 6th year of medical studies, before and aft er clinical urology course. Questions concerned general urological knowledge, prostate diseases, erectile dysfunction, and self-reported practical urological skills. Results: Overall, 437 respondents participated in the survey. Mean total test score in our study groupwas 50.08%, mean general urological knowledge score was 53.44%, mean prostate diseases knowledge score was 55.43%, mean erectile dysfunction score was 36% and mean practical skills score was 45.83%. Mean total test score increased with consecutive years of studies (R = 0.58; p <0.001). Th e risk of an above average total test score was signifi cantly infl uenced by the urology course (OR = 7.95, 95%CI = 1.81–34.84, p = 0.006) and the year of medical studies (4th–6th vs. 1st–3rd) (OR = 5.16, 95%CI = 3.41–7.81, p <0.001). Practical skills score above average was signifi cantly more frequent in the group aft er the urology course (OR = 6.75, 95%CI = 1.54–29.58, p = 0.011). Conclusions: Results of this study reveal low mean scores obtained by students, even aft er completing the urology course, which implies that curriculum requires further development. Urological knowledge and self-assessed practical skills increased with years of medical education. The urology course improved the score obtained in our survey, both in terms of total test score and practical skills.
Developing the empathic attitude is one of the tasks of medical education as it aff ects the quality of therapeutic contact in the relationship between the doctor and the patient, conditioning the treatment process. According to Davis’s concept, empathy is defi ned as an aff ective-cognitive reaction in the context of the other person’s experience. Aim: Analysis of profi les of empathic sensitivity in students of medicine. Group: Male and female students of the fi ft h year of medicine who agreed to participate in an anonymous study (n = 153; M = 57, F = 96; mean age: 23 years). Tools: Th e Empathetic Sensitivity Scale (EES), which is the Polish tool for Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used. Th e ESS includes three sub-scales: Empathic Care (EC), Personal Distress (PD) and Adopting Perspective (AP). Results: The raw results were converted into sten scores and for sten scores for all three dimensions of empathetic sensitivity no diff erences were found between male and female students. Th ree clusters (1: n = 33%, 2: n = 39%, 3: n = 28%), which diff er in terms of each distinguished indicator, were identifi ed. Conclusions: Th e first cluster characterizes empathetic people, both in the aff ective and cognitive spheres, and those dealing well with unpleasant emotions in situations diffi cult to others. Th e second cluster characterizes participants with the ability to recognize the needs of others and to take into account their perspectives; the third cluster includes participants with a tendency to focus on their own experiences emerging in response to other people’s suff ering but with the ability to understand a situation and show empathic concern for the other person. The most favourable profi le — for a future doctor as well as for his patients — is the fi rst cluster because the doctor, with his empathic sensitivity directed towards the other man, can deal with his own unpleasant emotions.
Introduction: Interventional cardiology (IC) is a rapidly expanding fi eld of medicine. Medical studies should provide students the necessary level of knowledge about new techniques in IC. The aim of the study was to assess the medical students’ knowledge about various new areas of IC. Material and methods: Self-designed questionnaire was used to assess student’s knowledge. It contained 31 questions. Th e initial 3 questions concerned general information, the remaining ones were related to diff erent IC techniques: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), Bioresorbable Vascular Scaff old (BVS), percutaneous mitral regurgitation repair methods, Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion (LAAO), Renal DeNervation (RDN), Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty (BAV) and Atrial Septal Defect/Persistent Foramen Ovale (ASD/PFO). One point for each correct answer was awarded. Results: In our study participated 104 students. Mean score was 15.9 ± 5.8 points. 24% of participants were 3rd year students, 38% — 4th, 20% — 5th and 18% — 6th. Th ere was no diff erences in level of knowledge between students of diff erent years of studies (p = 0.2). Students from Students Research Groups (SRG) achieved higher score in comparison with students no attending SRG (19.3 ± 6.3 vs 13.3 ± 3.7; p <0.001) as well as students interested in cardiology comparison with other (19.6 ± 5.9 vs 13.0 ± 3.8; p <0.001). Students from SRG and interested in cardiology reached also higher results in practically every area of IC in comparison with other. Conclusions: Participants have insuffi cient, outdated and incomplete knowledge of new methods in IC. Th ere was no signifi cant diff erence in students of diff erent years of studies. Students belonging to cardiological SRG and interested in cardiology have greater knowledge in IC.
O b j e c t i v e s: The aim of study was to investigate the association between anxiety, depression, stress and determinants of quality of life among Iranian students. M e t h o d s: The questionnaires were completed by 275 students. The random sampling was conducted in two phases, the stratified sampling which some classes were selected among different classes of faculty of health and at the second phase, in each class the number of students who had the requirements to enter in the study were selected randomly. the logistic regression to find out the association between demographic characteristics with the quality of life was run and according to the normality status of the distribution of data the parametric or non-parametric tests were used. R e s u l t s: In the univariable model, the students that were living in their own homes had the odds of 2.18 times more than the others to have a higher quality of life level (95% CI: 1.07–4.45). In the multi variable model the anxiety and stress were significantly related to the quality of life and for increasing each 1 unit in the amount of anxiety and stress the odds of a better quality of life decreases 0.19 and 0.03 respectively. Even after adjusting for other covariates – in the multivariable model – both anxiety and stress were associated with the quality of life. C o n c l u s i o n: It is useful for the universities to understand different aspects of the students’ lives which are under the influence of stress, anxiety and depression, and also determining the resources from which they are originated.
The paper presents the characteristics of the attitude that students have towards electric cars and the significance of distinguished attitude elements in creating interest in the purchase of such vehicles. Electric cars are the new type of vehicles that have an electric motor and use the electricity stored in batteries. They are introduced to the market, but for various reasons the volume of sales is not high. So far, it is not sufficiently known how electric vehicles are assessed by Poles. The presented research is an attempt to know what the attitude towards this type of vehicle. The attitude model tested in this research includes three areas: knowledge about them, emotions that they evoke and potential behaviors. The participants were students of Rzeszów University of Technology – a group of young people who are potential consumers of new technologies. The obtained results indicate that electric cars are rather unknown. At the same time, they arouse great interest and their image is very positive. The attitude characteristics towards this type of vehicle is supplemented by perceived limitations: too high of a purchase price, lack of sufficient information about them and unsatisfactory technical parameters, mainly the long time needed to recharge the battery and the insufficiently long distance with one recharge. The interest in the purchase is dependent on positive emotions, and the lack of sufficient information is an obstacle in thinking about buying such a vehicle. Understanding the attitudes of Polish students towards electric cars can be helpful in adapting information about such cars to potential customers, which in turn may affect the level of interest and sales volume.
In the academic community within Poland, there is an ongoing debate about the optimal strategies for a redesign of PhD programs; however, the views of PhD students in relation to contemporary doctoral study programs are not widely known. Therefore, in this article, we aim to answer the following questions: (1) what are the demands and the resources for doctoral studies at the Jagiellonian University (JU) as experienced by PhD students? (2) how are these demands and resources related to study burnout and engagement? To gain answers to these questions, we conducted an on-line opinion-based survey of doctoral students. As a result, 326 JU PhD students completed a questionnaire measuring 26 demands and 23 resources along with measures of study burnout and levels of engagement. The results revealed that the demands of doctoral studies at the JU (as declared by at least half of the respondents) are: the requirement to participate in classes that are perceived as an unproductive use of time, the lack of remuneration for tutoring courses with students, a lack of information about possible career paths subsequent to graduation, the use of PhD students as low-paid workers at the university, a lack of opportunities for financing their own research projects, and an inability to take up employment while studying for a doctoral degree. In terms of resources, at least half of the doctoral students pointed to: discounts on public transport and the provision of free-of-charge access to scientific journals. Analyzing both the frequency and strength of the relationships between resources/demands and burnout/engagement, we have identified four key problem areas: a lack of support from their supervisor, role ambiguity within University structures for PhD students, the conflict between paid work and doctoral studies, and the mandatory participation in classes as a student.
In knowledge based economy, which actually reflects the knowledge oriented modern society, career development of its members becomes the key factor, same as investing in career “portfolio”. In the article a career construct is invoked as an individual’s property considering individual career choices, individual career development planning and monitoring strategies. When addressing career related matter, one cannot overlook the issue of subjective meaning given to a career in the context of satisfactory outcome and success achievement experienced by the subject. Cognitively interesting issue addressed by the author are the results of research into evaluation of one’s own chances to succeed from the perspective of university students who are in the transition period from academic education to entering a job market.
In this text, a critical reflection is presented on assessment practices in early childhood education, which are discussed in the context of the creation by those practices of the students’ sense of agency which, according to J. Bruner, is treated as a category of school culture. The discussion is based on the results of the recent research conducted in Poland on students’ agency and an analysis of the data collected as part of the author’s own research. The picture obtained by using the triangulation of methods and sources confirms that assessment in early childhood education strips children of the opportunity to build a sense of agency, even in terms of independent control of a task situation. The surveyed students, admittedly, are capable of a relatively independent reflection on the context of school assessment, but the world of their educational experience is limited to the incapacitating culture of the school grade. It is a culture that becomes one of the sources of children’s self-restraint in the perception of themselves as agents, perpetuating their external steerability and passivity. To change this situation, external regulations will not suffice, but only the organizing of the learning environment based on the relationship between the teacher and the student, which is free from the daily pressures of assessment and the worship of formal correctness.
In education, information and Communications Technologies mostly play the role of a medium of communication, as well as a means of imparting knowledge. ICT, however, is used less as a subject for student activity, i.e. a subject for students to learn, where they can operate the technology, as in robotics or mechantronics. Information technologies are also very rarely implemented in education as a way for students to build their identity and shape their attitudes towards their outside and inside worlds. In spite of this, in the history of educational technology there have been a number of researchers and educators who have promoted interesting ideas for implementing technologies as tools for human cognitive, affective, psychomotor and moral empowerment. Today such people are also present in education, however, they play unimportant roles on the periphery of formal education. This paper is a reminder of a number of ideas by theorists and researchers concerning the implementation of ICT, but mainly highlights the empowerment it gives students and its humanizing/humanitarian role.