To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed. Test results show that the ultrasonic wave velocity and mass loss of concrete specimen begin to sharply drop after high temperatures of 600°C and 400°C, respectively, at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of specimen increase with increasing strain rate after the same temperature, but it is difficult to obtain an evident change law of peak strain with increasing strain rate. The compressive strength of concrete specimen decreases first, and then increases, but decreases again in the temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. It can be observed that the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of specimen increases with increasing temperature. In addition, the peak strain also increases but the elastic modulus decreases substantially with increasing temperature under the same strain rate.
The main objective of this study is to develop an echocardiographic model of the left ventricular and numerical modeling of the speckles- markers tracking in the ultrasound (ultrasonographic) imaging of the left ventricle. The work is aimed at the creation of controlled and mobile environment that enables to examine the relationships between left ventricular wall deformations and visualizations of these states in the form of echocardiographic imaging and relations between the dynamically changing distributions of tissue markers of studied structures.
The subject of the paper comprises a cohesive soil response to a cyclic loading applied in the rangeof small strains (10⁻⁵ ÷ 10⁻³). To this end tests of undrained cyclic shear in a triaxial compressionapparatus were carried out on homogeneous material – kaoline from Tułowice. The tests werecarried out on a modernised test bed, enabling full saturation of samples using the back pressuremethod, as well as a precise, intra-chamber measurement of small strains. Maintaining a constantdeviatoric stress amplitude for NC and OC soils, the effect of its size (A = 0.75∆q or A = 0.375∆q) as well as the influence of strain rate on material characteristics “deviatoric stress (excess pore waterpressure) – axial strain” and effective stress paths were tested. While analysing the results obtained,a phenomenon of closing and stabilising initially open and moving loops were found, in contrast toproposal by Jardine . The observed increments in the axial strain during cyclic loading operation,at the same levels of lateral effective stress, were greater for normally consolidated than for over-consolidated soils. At the same time, at each next cycle, these increments were smaller and smaller,assuming even the value equal to zero for the tenth cycle. Similar relationships occurred during theincrease in the pore water pressure during the cyclic load action. For the set number of cycles n = 10 they were that small – max. 46% (and decreasing with each consecutive cycle) that they did notresult in weakening of the material. Taking the trend of decreasing ∆u increments into account itwas possible to accept that the conclusion considered was right irrespective of the cycles’ number.
A method of tensile testing of materials in dynamic conditions based on a slightly modified compressive split Hopkinson bar system using a shoulder is described in this paper. The main goal was to solve, with the use of numerical modelling, the problem of wave disturbance resulting from application of a shoulder, as well as the problem of selecting a specimen geometry that enables to study the phenomenon of high strain-rate failure in tension. It is shown that, in order to prevent any interference of disturbance with the required strain signals at a given recording moment, the positions of the strain gages on the bars have to be correctly chosen for a given experimental setup. Besides, it is demonstrated that - on the basis of simplified numerical analysis - an appropriate gage length and diameter of a material specimen for failure testing in tension can be estimated.
An optical measurement method of radial displacement of a ring sample during its expansion with velocity of the order 172 m/s and estimation technique of plastic flow stress of a ring material on basis of the obtained experimental data are presented in the work. To measure the ring motion during the expansion process, the Phantom v12 digital high-speed camera was applied, whereas the specialized TEMA Automotive software was used to analyze the obtained movies. Application of the above-mentioned tools and the developed measuring procedure of the ring motion recording allowed to obtain reliable experimental data and calculation results of plastic flow stress of a copper ring with satisfactory accuracy.
In this study, medium-carbon steel was subjected to warm deformation experiments on a Gleeble 3500 thermosimulator machine at temperatures of 550°C and 650°C and strain rates of 0.001 s–1 to 1 s–1. The warm deformation behavior of martensite and the effects of strain rate on the microstructure of ultrafine grained medium-carbon steel were investigated. The precipitation behavior of Fe3C during deformation was analyzed and the results showed that recrystallization occurred at a low strain rate. The average ultrafine ferrite grains of 500 ± 58 nm were fabricated at 550°C and a strain rate of 0.001 s–1. In addition, the size of Fe3C particles in the ferrite grains did not show any apparent change, while that of the Fe3C particles at the grain boundaries was mainly affected by the deformation temperature. The size of Fe3C particles increased with the increasing deformation temperature, while the strain rate had no significant effect on Fe3C particles. Moreover, the grain size of recrystallized ferrite decreased with an increase in the strain rate. The effects of the strain rate on the grain size of recrystallized ferrite depended on the deformation temperature and the strain rate had a prominent effect on the grain size at 550°C deformation temperature. Finally, the deformation resistance apparently decreased at 550°C and strain rate of 1 s–1 due to the maximum adiabatic heating in the material.
The article presents the results of investigation of ultra-strength nanostructured bainitic steel Fe-0.6%C-1.9%Mn-1.8%Si-1.3%Cr-0.7%Mo (in wt. %) subjected to shear and uniaxial compression under high strain rate loading. Steel of microstructure consisted of carbide-free bainite and carbon enriched retained austenite presents a perfect balance of mechanical properties especially strength to toughness ratio. Two retained austenite morphologies exist which controlled ductility of the steel: film between bainite laths and separated blocks. It is well established that the strain induced transformation of carbon enriched retained austenite to martensite takes place during deformation. Shear localisation has been found to be an important and often dominant deformation and fracture mode in high-strength steels at high strain rate. Deformation tests were carried out using Gleeble simulator and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Shear and compression strength were determined and toughness and crack resistance were assessed. Susceptibility of nanostructured bainitic steel to the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) and conditions of the bands formation were analysed. The results suggest that the main mechanism of hardening and failure at the dynamic shearing is local retained austenite transformation to high-carbon martensite which preceded ASBs formation. In the area of strain localization retained austenite transformed to fresh martensite and then steel capability to deformation and strengthening decreases.