Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC) is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.
This article presents a linear strain measurement method insensitive to temperature variations and using fibre Bragg gratings. Two Bragg gratings were applied with periods selected to obtain partial coverage of their spectrum characteristics. One of the gratings was subjected to a tension strength. Placing both gratings in one thermal chamber allowed - through ensuring the same thermal conditions - to obtain insensitivity of the entire scheme to temperature variations. The gratings were recorded on the same optical fibre and reacted to temperature variations in the same degree. Value of strain was indicated based on the transmission spectrum characteristic of two grating schemes. The use of transmission, not reflectance, characteristics of the gratings allowed for a direct measurement of the spectrum, without having to use a coupler or optical circulators, and at the same time, this allowed to simplify the strain detection scheme. We proposed applying the continuous wavelet transform with characteristics of the spectrum scheme of two gratings for improvement of static properties. Especially, the thermal linearity and stability of the sensor was improved. For a strain range up to 750 μe, the non-linearity error of processing characteristic obtained was 0.45%. Thermal stability of the scheme proposed was defined as relative sensitivity of the power to temperature variations. The mean value of such relative sensitivity of the scheme proposed in the temperature scope of 21ºC-95ºC, amounted to 0.195.
The paper presents the results of the analysis of the striker shape impact on the shape of the mechanical elastic wave generated in the Hopkinson bar. The influence of the tensometer amplifier bandwidth on the stress-strain characteristics obtained in this method was analyzed too. For the purposes of analyzing under the computing environment ABAQUS / Explicit the test bench model was created, and then the analysis of the process of dynamic deformation of the specimen with specific mechanical parameters was carried out. Based on those tests, it was found that the geometry of the end of the striker has an effect on the form of the loading wave and the spectral width of the signal of that wave. Reduction of the striker end diameter reduces unwanted oscillations, however, adversely affects the time of strain rate stabilization. It was determined for the assumed test bench configuration that a tensometric measurement system with a bandwidth equal to 50 kHz is sufficient
Digital photoelasticity is an important optical metrology follow-up for stress and strain analysis using full-field digital photographic images. Advances in digital image processing, data acquisition, procedures for pattern recognition and storage capacity enable the use of the computer-aided technique in automation and facilitate improvement of the digital photoelastic technique. The objective of this research is to find new equations for a novel phase-shifting method in digital photoelasticity. Some innovations are proposed. In terms of phaseshifting, only the analyzer is rotated, and the other equations are deduced by applying a new numerical technique instead of the usual algebraic techniques. This approach can be used to calculate a larger sequence of images. Each image represents a pattern and a measurement of the stresses present in the object. A decrease in the mean errors was obtained by increasing the number of observations. A reduction in the difference between the theoretical and experimental values of stresses was obtained by increasing the number of images in the equations for calculating phase. Every photographic image has errors and random noise, but the uncertainties due to these effects can be reduced with a larger number of observations. The proposed method with many images and high accuracy is a good alternative to the photoelastic techniques.
Deterministic mechanics has been extensively used by engineers as they needed models that could predict the behavior of designed structures and components. However, modern engineering is now shifting to a new approach where the uncertainty analysis of the model inputs enables to obtain more accurate results. This paper presents an application of this new approach in the field of the stress analysis. In this case, a two-dimensional stress elasticity model is compared with the experimental stress results of five different size tubes measured with resistive strain gages. Theoretical and experimental uncertainties have been calculated by means of the Monte Carlo method and a weighted least square algorithm, respectively. The paper proposes that the analytical engineering models have to integrate an uncertainty component considering the uncertainties of the input data and phenomena observed during the test, that are difficult to adapt in the analytical model. The prediction will be thus improved, the theoretical result being much closer to the real case.
This paper presents a method of using a sensor with uniform Bragg grating with appropriately generated zone chirp. The presented method can be used for measuring two physical quantities, namely strain and temperature. By providing the same temperature sensitivity and different sensitivity to strain of two parts of a sensor, and experimental measurement of qualities of the proposed system and its calibration (experimental determination of sensitivity), verification of the results obtained from laboratory tests and the possibility of its practical implementation has been confirmed. The sensor grating was placed in such a way that its half was in the zone of a variable value of axial strain caused by changes of the cross-section of the sample. The other half, however, was in the zone of a constant cross-section of the sample and of constant value of strain, caused by the force stretching the sample. The obtained errors of non-linearity of processing characteristics for measuring strain and temperature of the proposed system were 2.7% and 1.5% respectively, while coefficients of sensitivity to strain and temperature were 0.77 x 10-6 m/e and 4.13 x 10-12 m/K respectively. The maximum differences between the values obtained from the indirect measurement and the set values were 110 μe for strain and 3.8°C for temperature, for a strain of 2500 μe and a temperature of 40°C.