A modified emulsion polymerisation synthesis route for preparing highly dispersed cationic polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles is reported. The combined use of 2,2′-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin- 2-yl)propane] di-hydrochloride (VA-044) as the initiator and acetone/water as the solvent medium afforded successful synthesis of cationic PS particles as small as 31 nm in diameter. A formation mechanism for the preparation of PS nanoparticles was proposed, whereby the occurrence of rapid acetone diffusion caused spontaneous rupture of emulsion droplets into smaller droplets. Additionally, acetone helped to reduce the surface tension and increase the solubility of styrene, thus inhibiting aggregation and coagulation among the particles. In contrast, VA-044 initiator could effectively regulate the stability of the PS nanoparticles including both the surface charge and size. Other reaction parameters i.e. VA-044 concentration and reaction time were examined to establish the optimum polymerisation conditions.
Measurements of hydrogen solubility in various nitrobenzene-aniline mixtures were conducted in an autoclave reactor with a stirrer and control of temperature. The solubility of hydrogen was measured at 7 different values of temperature (30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 90 °C, 130 °C, 170 °C, 210 °C, respectively), 3 values of stirrer rotation speed (1200 rpm, 1600 rpm, 2000 rpm, respectively) and a range of pressure of 20 ‒ 30 bar. Moreover, pure aniline, pure nitrobenzene and their mixtures with different concentrations were used. In the next step, values of Henry’s constant were calculated. Based on experimental data a dependence of Henry’s constant on temperature for pure aniline and pure nitrobenzene was proposed. Additionally, for each temperature correlations between Henry’s constant and aniline’s concentration in mixture of nitrobenzene-aniline were found.
Binary vapour-liquid equilibrium of thymoquinone and carbon dioxide at the isothermal conditions was carried out at temperature 323.15 K and pressures from 6 to 10 MPa. The experimental data were fitted to the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. Results could be used for selection of process parameters in separation of volatiles from raw oil or for evaluation of existing separation technologies.
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, concentrations of uric acid in the surface waters of two non-glaciated catchments (Fugle and Dynamisk) on Spitsbergen were measured. Measurements of specific conductivity enabled us to perform tests on the dissolution of the carbonate rocks present in both catchments in both natural and aqueous solutions of uric acid. Samples of calcium urate were made and its water solubility determined. Given a knowledge of concentrations of uric acid, calcium ions and calcium urate solubility product, an estimate of the role of uric acid in the dissolution of carbonate rocks was possible. Uric acid increases the dissolution of carbonate rocks by c. 12.5% in case of the Fugle catchment and 7% in Dynamisk.
The aim of this study was to determine the solubility of CO2 in perfluorodecalin (PFD) which is frequently used as efficient liquid carrier of respiratory gases in bioprocess engineering. The application of perfluorinated liquid in a microsystem has been presented. Gas-liquid mass transfer during Taylor (slug) flow in a microchannel of circular cross section 0.4 mm in diameter has been investigated. A physicochemical system of the absorption of CO2 from the CO2/N2 mixture in perfluorodecalin has been applied. The Henry’s law constants have been found according to two theoretical approaches: physical (H = 1.22·10-3 mol/m3Pa) or chemical (H = 1.26·10-3 mol/m3Pa) absorption. We are hypothesising that the gas-liquid microchannel system is applicable to determine the solubility of respiratory gases in perfluorinated liquids.
The paper presents a numerical model for analyzing vaporliquid equilibrium of ternary (three-component) system at high pressures. The gas-phase non-idealities and solubility of gas in liquid are considered in the numerical model. The model is useful for studies involving evaporation of liquid at different pressure and temperature conditions, where the interface liquid and vapor compositions are required. At high ambient pressures, ambient gases dissolve into the liquid. Thus, even a single component liquid fuel evaporating in a high pressure ambient gas, effectively behaves like a two-component liquid system. This study considers a ternary system. The numerical model has been validated against the experimental data available in literature. The validated model is used to study the solubility of ambient gas in a binary liquid mixture at high pressures. The effects of pressure, temperature and liquid phase composition on the solubility of gas in liquid have been studied systematically.
Thermodynamic principles for the dissolution of gases in ionic liquids (ILs) and the COSMO-SAC model are presented. Extensive experimental data of Henry’s law constants for CO2, N2 and O2 in ionic liquids at temperatures of 280-363 K are compared with numerical predictions to evaluate the accuracy of the COSMO-SAC model. It is found that Henry’s law constants for CO2 are predicted with an average relative deviation of 13%. Both numerical predictions and experimental data reveal that the solubility of carbon dioxide in ILs increases with an increase in the molar mass of ionic liquids, and is visibly more affected by the anion than by the cation. The calculations also show that the highest solubilities are obtained for [Tf2N]ˉ. Thus, the model can be regarded as a useful tool for the screening of ILs that offer the most favourable CO2 solubilities. The predictions of the COSMOSAC model for N2 and O2 in ILs differ from the pertinent experimental data. In its present form the COSMO-SAC model is not suitable for the estimation of N2 and O2 solubilities in ionic liquids.
Fully synthetic, biochemically inert and water-immiscible liquid perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are recognised as flexible liquid carriers/scavengers of gaseous compounds (respiratory gases mainly, i.e. O2 and CO2) and increasingly applied in bioprocess engineering. A range of unmatched physicochemical properties of liquid PFCs, i.e. outstanding chemo- and thermostability, extremely low surface tension, simultaneous hydro- and lipophobicity, which result from carbon chain substitution with fluorine atoms (the most electronegative chemical element) and the presence of intramolecular C-F bonds (the strongest single bond known in organic chemistry) have been described in detail. Exceptional propensity to solubility of respiratory gases in liquid perfluorinated compounds has been widely discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of bioprocess applications of liquid PFCs in the form of a pure PFC as well as in an emulsified form have been pointed out. A liquid PFC-mediated mass transfer intensification in various types of microbial, plant cell and animal cell culture systems: from miniaturised microlitre-scale cultures, via biomaterial-based scaffolds containing culture systems, to litre-scale bioreactors, has been reviewed and elaborated on bearing in mind the benefits of bioprocesses.