Cultural, ideological and social sources of anarchy in spatial management in Poland. The article is an individual statement about the state of the steering sphere of spatial management in Poland. The author puts forward the thesis that for years there has been anarchy in it, which deepened in the period of systemic transformation. Despite the established legal framework of spatial management, consistent with European standards and the existence of spatial planning institutions at local, regional and national level, manifestations of anarchy are widely visible. This is an important, though not the only, reason for the widely observed and repeatedly documented disorder and even spatial chaos in the material sphere of spatial management in Poland. The sources of this anarchy are sought in a specific Polish culture, ideologies professed by professionals related to spatial management, and in old and new social divisions.
The author champions the belief that Karl Marx offered a theory of capitalism, and not a theory of socialism. This explains, she argues, why we cannot find a detailed and well-constructed conception of human society that will exist in the future. Marx continued, however, to draw prognostic conclusions from his diagnosis of the capitalist status quo, and his numerous manuscripts are replete with social predictions. They were different at different times, and as the capitalist system tended to change in his lifetime, so changed Marx’s expectations about the future course of events. One thing remained unchanged, however. He always proclaimed the coming of a classless community based on the principle that a free development of each is a necessary prerequisite of a free development of all.