During drilling through aquifers using the rotary drilling method with drilling fluid application, the phenomenon of formation clogging in near-well zone takes place. This leads to physical changes in pore spaces in consequence of the deposition solid phase particles originating from the drilling fluid. Due to this fact, filtration velocity in the clogged zones of the aquifer formation decreases, which results in increased pressure drawdown and decreased well hydraulic efficiency. Therefore, it causes a reduction of the well total capacity. The article consists of studies connected to the development of the mud which will constitute the basis for a complex mud system intended for hydrogeological drilling in different encountered geological conditions. In the framework of laboratory research, technological parameters of six, commonly applied in oil and gas industry, polymer agents as well as new agent developed at the Drilling, Oil and Gas Faculty AGH-UST in Krakow were examined. The undertaken studies showed that the new agent, marked as CAGEx, provides the required technological parameters and can be applied as a base for drilling muds intended for hydrogeological drilling. The undertaken industrial research of the new CAGEx drilling mud carried out while drilling water intake well, confirmed the great stability of its technological parameters as well as insignificant influence on rock permeability damage in filter zone. The water intake well is characterized by high hydraulic efficiency and does not require additional activation treatment.
In this study, we investigate the mechanical behavior of each skin layer, in terms of the nominal stress-strain curve by uniaxial tensile tests using specimens of porcine skin in two forms: dermis containing epidermis, and all three layers. All tests were performed under cyclic loading at the constant strain rate of 10–3 s–1 at ambient temperature. To measure the precise initial cross-sectional areas of each layer, the thickness of each skin layer was quantified by counting the number of pixels on the photo-image using image-processing software. In the tensile test, force-strain curves of the total skin and dermis with epidermis were obtained. Subsequently, a rule of mixtures was applied to determine the nonlinear mechanical properties of the hypodermis layer. In conclusion, we could define the uniaxial tensile behavior of the hypodermis, and additionally predict the weight effect of the dermis and hypodermis layers in the tensile test.
Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on porcine skin to investigate the tensile stress-strain constitutive characteristic at quasistatic deformations using uniaxial tensile tests. Experimental results were then used to determine the parameters of the various constitutive model types for rubber, including the Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, Ogden, and others. The Prony series viscoelastic model was also calibrated based on the stress relaxation test. To investigate the calibrated constitutive equations (visco-hyperelastic), the falling impact test was conducted. From the viewpoint of the maximum impact load, the error was approximately 15.87%. Overall, the Ogden model predicted the experimental measurements most reasonably. The calibrated constitutive model is expected to be of practical use in describing the mechanical properties of porcine skin.
Allergic skin diseases in cats are amongst the most prevalent dermatological conditions in this species. The objectives of this study were to evaluate different types of skin barrier measurements in healthy cats and cats with non-flea non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis (NFNFHD). 24 clinically healthy and 19 NFNFHD cats were included in this clinical trial. In each animal, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration (SH) were assessed on six clipped body sites by VapoMeter SWL 4605 and Corneometer ®CM 825, respectively. Results of TEWL measurement were , significantly higher in one of the six examined body sites, namely on the lumbar area (p=0.0049). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was found between the average TEWL values (p=0.019). Statistically notable differences were mea- sured at least in one certain body site for SH: in the groin (p=0.02), where the values in the affect- ed cats were lower than in the healthy individuals. These results may suggest that in NFNFHD cats transepidermal water loss is higher than in healthy cats. Skin hydration is, at least, in certain body sites, lower in atopic feline patients than in healthy individuals.
The paper presents a procedure for correction of the error of an ECG signal, introduced by the skin-electrode interface. This procedure involves three main measuring-calculating stages: parametrical identification of the mathematical model of the interface, realized directly before the diagnostic measurements, registration of the signal at the output of electrodes as well as reconstruction of the input signal of the interface. The first two stages are realized in the on-line mode, whereas the operation of signal reconstruction presents a numerical task of digital signal processing and is realized in the off-line mode through deconvolution of the registered signal with the transfer function of the skin-electrode interface. The aim of the paper is to discuss in detail the procedure of parametric identification of the skin-electrode interface with the use of a computer system equipped with a DAQ card and LabVIEW software. The algorithm for error correction introduced by this interface is also presented.
In this article, we present a comprehensive measurement system to determine the level of user emotional arousal by the analysis of electrodermal activity (EDA). A number of EDA measurements were collected, while emotions were elicited using specially selected movie sequences. Data collected from 16 participants of the experiment, in conjunction with those from personal questionnaires, were used to determine a large number of 20 features of the EDA, to assess the emotional state of a user. Feature selection was performed using signal processing and analysis methods, while considering user declarations. The suitability of the designed system for detecting the level of emotional arousal was fully confirmed, throughout the number of experiments. The average classification accuracy for two classes of the least and the most stimulating movies varies within the range of 61‒72%.
Investigating human emotions empirically is still considered to be challenging, mostly due to the questionable validity of the results obtained when employing individual types of measures. Among the most frequently used methods to study emotional reactions are self-report, autonomic, neurophysiological, and behavioral measures. Importantly, previous studies on emotional responding have rarely triangulated the aforementioned research methods. In this paper we discuss main methodological considerations related to the use of physiological and self-report measures in emotion studies, based on our previous research on the processing of emotionally-laden narratives in the native and non-native language, where we employed the SUPIN S30 questionnaire as a self-report tool, and galvanic skin response (GSR) as a physiological measure (Jankowiak & Korpal, 2018). The findings revealed a more pronounced reaction to stimuli presented in the native relative to the non-native language, which was however reflected only in GSR patterns. The lack of correlation between GSR and SUPIN scores might have resulted from a number of methodological considerations, such as social desirability bias, sensitive questions, lack of emotional self-awareness, compromised ecological validity, and laboratory anxiety, all of which are thoroughly discussed in the article.
Measurement of the perfusion coefficient and thermal parameters of skin tissue using dynamic thermography is presented in this paper. A novel approach based on cold provocation and thermal modelling of skin tissue is presented. The measurement was performed on a person’s forearm using a special cooling device equipped with the Peltier module. The proposed method first cools the skin, and then measures the changes of its temperature matching the measurement results with a heat transfer model to estimate the skin perfusion and other thermal parameters. In order to assess correctness of the proposed approach, the uncertainty analysis was performed.
This paper expands the M-K curve theory with examples of the most commonly mentioned pile-soil mechanics behaviours in the literature and their corresponding κ2 variations. A brief introduction shows the history of the Meyer-Kowalow theory and its basic assumptions. This is followed by the relationship between in situ investigation CPT results, with parameters C1, C2, Ct used to approximate the load-settlement curve according to the M-K theory. The Meyer-Kowalow curve satisfies asymptotic behaviour for small loads, where linear theory applies, and for limit loads, when pile displacement is out of control. Essential in the description are constant parameters C, which refer to the aggregated Winklers modulus, Ngr limit loads and k, which is crucial for static load test results. For this reason, the authors sought to calculate the κ value based upon soil mechanics principles. This article shows methods for checking statistical mathematical calculations, published earlier by Meyer using CPT investigations. It presents real case calculations and directions for future planned research.