The length of crystalline cones (cc) is proportional to krill body length and this proportion can be described by the equation L cc = L krill x 1.679 + 52.032 ( cc — μm; L krill - mm). By measuring cc one can determine the size of krill with the precision of 2—3 mm. The structure of crystalline cones is not crystal, and the elemental composition includes much of S and Ca. Crystalline cones are often found in the stomach and feces of animals feeding on krill.
The preliminary stage of asphalt mixture production involves the drying and dedusting of coarse aggregates. The most common types of coarse aggregates used are limestone and basalt. In the process of drying and dedusting the dryer filter accumulates large quantities of waste in the form of mineral powder. This paper introduces an investigation into limestone powder waste as a potential microfiller of polymer composites. Physical characteristics such as the granulation the of powder collected from the filter - in terms of the season of its collection and the type of input materials used - were analysed. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for the investigation described within this paper. The obtained results were compared against those of other materials which can be used as polymer composites microfillers.
The paper aims at the empirical evaluation of the impact of bank size (as measured by median total assets) on the value relevance of two key accounting variables, i.e. book values of equity and net earnings, in terms of their joint explanatory power in the regression model and the relative responsiveness of bank market values to the changes in those variables. The research is based on the multiple linear regression analysis after controlling for the presence of fixed and random effects. The examined sample covers all domestically-based commercial banks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange over the period 1998–2017. The final pooled sample comprises 18 banks and 271 bank-year observations. The findings of the study suggest that the equity investors perceive the joint informational content of book values and earnings of larger banks as more value relevant in comparison to the accounting numbers reported by their smaller peers. The responsiveness of banks’ market values to the changes in each of the explanatory variables seems, however, to be affected by their size in a different way. As expected, book values of equity have turned out to be significantly more informative for smaller banks, whereas the evidence regarding the impact of size on the responsiveness of bank market values to the changes in net earnings is ambiguous. Although larger banks appear to exhibit a higher sensitivity of stock prices to variations in net earnings per share than their smaller peers, the difference between the examined subsamples is not statistically significant.
The problem of of the use of fly ash still constitutes a research and exploration area for scientists. This is due to the fact that, 6,000,000 Mg of coal combustion by-products (CCB) are storage on landfills yearly in Poland alone. One of the potential directions of using fly ash is to use it as a substrate in hydrothermal syntheses of mesoporous materials (synthetic zeolites). Zeolites are aluminosilicates with a spatial structure. Due to their specific structure they are characterized by a number of specific properties among others molecular-sieve, ion-exchange and catalytic that can be used in engineering and environmental protection. So far, the synthesis has been carried out using coal combustion by-products such as fly ash or microsphere. The article analyzes whether separation from the fly ash of the appropriate fraction (below 63 μm) will affect the formation of zeolite grains. The syntheses were carried out using class F fly ash and the fraction separated from it, which was obtained by sieving the ash through a 63 μm sieve. Chemical (XRF) and mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS) analyzes were carried out for substrates as well as the obtained reaction products. In the case of substrates, the analysis did not show any significant differences between the ash and the separated fraction. However, in products after synthesis (Na-X zeolite with a small amount of Na-P1 zeolite, and small amounts of quartz and unreacted aluminosilicate glass - mullite) higher aluminum and sodium contents were observed from the separated fraction, with a lower calcium and potassium content. A small proportion of illite was observed on the diffraction curve of the zeolite from the fraction. Observations of grain morphology showed no differences in formation. Based on the conducted analyzes, it can be stated that, considering the economics of the synthesis process, the separation of fine fractions from the fly ash does not affect the quality of the synthesis process.
Experiences of subregional cities in programming of urban renewal. The aim of the article is to analyze and evaluate the experience of selected subregional cities in revitalization programming. At the beginning, the strategic policy of the state towards subregional centers was defined. The guidelines from the National Spatial Development Concept, the National Urban Policy and the Strategy for Responsible Development were pointed out. Then, examine in detail the activities carried out so far in 4 cities, which as a result of the administrative reform in 1999 lost the status of the provincial city, i.e. in Ciechanów, Legnica, Piła and Przemyśl. Current documents have been characterized, in particular, the specificity of areas covered by revitalization has been described. Next, the leading directions of transformations of these areas were presented, resulting from the adopted revitalization policy. This allowed for the formulation of certain generalizations about the specificity of the process of renewal of degraded areas in subregional centers in Poland.
This article considers designing of a renewable electrical power generation system for self-contained homes away from conventional grids. A model based on a technique for the analysis and evaluation of two solar and wind energy sources, electrochemical storage and charging of a housing area is introduced into a simulation and calculation program that aims to decide, based on the optimized results, on electrical energy production system coupled or separated from the two sources mentioned above that must be able to ensure a continuous energy balance at any time of the day. Such system is the most cost-effective among the systems found. The wind system adopted in the study is of the low starting speed that meets the criteria of low winds in the selected region under study unlike the adequate solar resource, which will lead to an examination of its feasibility and profitability to compensate for the inactivity of photovoltaic panels in periods of no sunlight. That is a system with fewer photovoltaic panels and storage batteries whereby these should return a full day of autonomy. Two configurations are selected and discussed. The first is composed of photovoltaic panels and storage batteries and the other includes the addition of a wind system in combination with the photovoltaic system with storage but at a higher investment cost than the first. Consequently, this result proves that is preferable to opt for a purely photovoltaic system supported by the storage in this type of site and invalidates the interest of adding micro wind turbines adapted to sites with low wind resources.
The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of distilled water flowrate in two different porousmembrane modules on the size of generated nitrogen nanobubbles. Modules had different diameter and number of membrane tubes inside the module. As bubbles are cut off from the membrane surface by a shear stress induced by the liquid flow, the change in the linear liquid velocity should result in a change of the generated bubble diameter. For both modules, higher flowrate of liquid induced generation of smaller bubbles, which was consistent with our expectations. This effect can help us in generation of bubbles of desired size.
The process of enrichment in a jig has usually been described and analysed using particle density as a separation feature. However, a degree of particle loosening in the jig bed is affected by, inter alia, the terminal particle free settling velocity which in turn is affected by the size, density and shape of a particle. Therefore, the terminal particle settling velocity clearly characterises the feed transferred to a jig for the enrichment process. Taking the comprehensive particle geometric (particle size and shape) and physical properties (particle density) into account comes down to the calculation of the terminal particle settling velocity. The terminal particle settling velocity is therefore a complex separation feature which comprises three basic particle features (particle density, size and shape). This paper compares the effects of enrichment of coal fines in a jig, for two cases: when the commonly applied particle density is separation feature and for the particle settling velocity. Particle settling velocities were calculated in the selected three particle size fractions: –3.15+2.00, –10.00+8.00 and –20.00+16.00 mm based on the industrial testing of a jig for coal fines and detailed laboratory tests consisting in determining particle density, projective diameter and volume and dynamic particle shape coefficient. The calculated and drawn partition curves for two variants, i.e. when particle density and particle settling velocity were taken into account as the separation argument in selected particle size fractions, allowed to calculate and compare separation precision indicator. With the use of a statistical test, the assumption on the independence of random variables of the distribution of components included in the distribution of the particle settling velocity as a separation feature during enrichment in a jig was verified.
This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions) and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics) were determined.
The temperature dependence of the particle size distribution (PSD) of the magnetic fluid with an additional biocompatible dextran layer was studied using a ultrasonic method. The measurements of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation were carried out as a function of the volume concentration of magnetite particles at temperatures ranging from 15°C to 40°C. In order to extract the PSD from ultrasonic measurements, the theoretical model of Vinogradov-Isakovich was used. The extraction of PSD from the ultrasonic data requires also the measurements the density and viscosity of the ferrofluid samples. The calculated PSD of the magnetic fluid with an additional biocompatible layer shows a greater thermal stability than that of a magnetic fluid with a single surfactant layer.
In this study, we present a new method for obtaining the parameters of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation for dynamic recrystallization grain size. The method consists of finite-element analysis and optimization techniques. An optimization tool iteratively minimizes the error between experimental values and corresponding finite-element solutions. Isothermal backward extrusion of the AA6060 aluminum alloy was used to acquire the main parameters of the equation for predicting DRX grain size. We compared grain sizes predicted using optimized and reference parameters with experimental values from the literature and found better agreement when the optimized parameters were applied.
An understanding of the fundamental correlation between grain size and material damping is crucial for the successful development of structural components offering high strength and good mechanical energy absorption. With this regard, we fabricated aluminum sheets with grain sizes ranging from tens of microns down to 60 nm and investigated their tensile properties and mechanical damping behavior. An obvious transition of the damping mechanism was observed at nanoscale grain sizes, and the underlying causes by grain boundaries were interpreted.
In general, uniform mixing of particles is desirable in the process of particle handling. However, during the charging of sinter feed and upper ore, size segregation must be induced to prevent heat imbalance, ensure bed permeability, and prevent the loss of fine ore. In this study, upper ore charging was simulated using a discrete element method (DEM) to find the optimal method for controlling particle size segregation, and the segregation characteristics in the upper ore bed were investigated when a deflector plate was applied to the charging machine. The degree of vertical segregation increased when a deflector plate was applied, and it was confirmed that the segregation direction in the upper ore bed can be controlled by adjusting the charging direction of the upper ore by using a deflector plate. In order to apply this method directly to the actual process, further study is needed to understand the influence of the characteristics of the deflector plate such as length and angle.
Stability of silver nanoparticles strongly influences the potential of their application. The literature shows wide possibilities of nanoparticles preparation, which has significantly impact on their properties. Therefore, the improvement of AgNPs preparation plays a key role in the case of their practical use. The pH values of the environment are one of the important factors, which directly influences stability of AgNPs. We present a comparing study of the silver nanoparticles prepared by „bottom-up“ methods over by chemical synthesis and biosynthesis using AgNO3 (0.29 mM) solution. For the biosynthesis of the silver nanoparticles, the green freshwater algae Parachlorella kessleri and Citrus limon extracts were used as reducing and stabilizing agents. Chemically synthesized AgNPs were performed using sodium citrate (0.5%) as a capping agent and 0.01% gelatine as a reducing agent. The formation and long term stability of those silver nanoparticles synthesized either biologically and chemically were clearly observed by solution colour changes and confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The pH values of formed nanoparticle solutions were 3 and 5.8 for biosynthesized AgNPs using extract of Citrus limon and Parachlorella kessleri, respectively and 7.2 for chemically prepared AgNPs solution using citrate. The SEM as a surface imaging method was used for the characterization of nanoparticle shapes, size distribution and also for resolving different particle sizes. These micrographs confirmed the presence of dispersed and aggregated AgNPs with various shapes and sizes.
The paper presents validation tests for method which is used for the evaluation of the statistical distribution parameters for 3D particles’ diameters. The tested method, as source data, uses chord sets which are registered from a random cutting plane placed inside a sample space. In the sample space, there were individually generated three sets containing 3D virtual spheres. Each set had different Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF3) of the sphere diameters, namely: constant radius, normal distribution and bimodal distribution as a superposition of two normal distributions. It has been shown that having only a chord set it is possible, by using the tested method, to calculate the mean value of the outer sphere areas. For the sets of data, a chord method generates quite large errors for around 10% of the smallest nodules in the analysed population. With the increase of the nodule radii, the estimation errors decrease. The tested method may be applied to foundry issues e.g. for the estimation of gas pore sizes in castings or for the estimation of nodule graphite sizes in ductile cast iron.
In technology of coal fines beneficiation in Poland mainly fines jigging processes are in use. In case of steam coal fines beneficiation it is till 80% of the whole amount of produced assortments, while in case of coking coal fines it is 100%. The necessary condition of not homogenous feed separation which is directed to beneficiation process in pulsating water stream is a sufficient liberation of particles. The stratification of particles in working bed causes that particles of certain size, density and shape gather in individual layers in working bed of jig. The introduction of sufficient amount of additional water determines appropriate liberation of particles group, which generates partition into concentrate and tailings. The paper presents the results of sampling of industrial jig used for the beneficiation of coal fines by three various settings of additional amount of water under sieve which is directed to jigging. These amounts were equal to 35, 50 and 70 [m3/h]. Collected samples of separation products were then sieved into narrow particle size fractions and divided into density fractions. In such narrow size-density fractions the coordinates of partition curves were calculated for tailings of hard coal fines, which were subsequently approximated by means of Weibull distribution function. The separation precision measured by separation density, probable error and imperfection were determined on the basis of obtained model separation curves. The evaluation of separation effects was performed for a wide particle size fraction: feed directed to jigging process and narrow particle size fractions. The analysis of separation results in size-density fractions allowed to determine the influence of particle size change on the value of probable error. The results of separation precision in size-density fractions were compared with effects of separation of wide particle fraction, i.e. feed directed to jigging process.
Although chaetognaths inhabiting polar ecosystems are relatively well known, there are few reports on their functioning in the Antarctic coastal plankton community. The presented results provide the first comprehensive description of population structure of chaetognaths in the neritic zone west of the Antarctic Peninsula. The studies were performed on samples collected in Admiralty Bay, from December 1994 to June 1995. Following six chaetognath species were determined: Eukrohnia hamata, E. bathypelagica, E. fowleri, Pseudosagitta gazellae, P. maxima and Solidosagitta marri. The representatives of Eukrohnia were observed almost throughout the research period, whereas those of Pseudosagitta and Solidosagitta were found only during first four months of our investigation. Eukrohnia hamata showed a strong dominance in respect to abundance (max. 445 ind./1000 m3). The mean abundance of all taxa significantly fluctuated in the study period and across weeks. Generally, all species were represented by the first three maturity stages (I-III), individuals stage IV occurred sporadically, and mature specimens (stage V) were not recorded at all. Morphometric analysis of the most abundant species showed distinct differences in their total length and body proportions. Our findings may suggest that chaetognath populations in Admiralty Bay are migrant, dependent on the inflow of water from the Bransfield Strait, but to prove this statement further, round year study is necessary.
Determining the size of source effect of a radiation thermometer is not an easy task and manufacturers of these thermometers usually do not indicate the deviation to the measured temperature due to this effect. It is one of the main uncertainty components when measuring with a radiation thermometer and it may lead to erroneous estimation of the actual temperature of the measured target. We present an empiric model to estimate the magnitude of deviation of the measured temperature with a long-wavelength infrared radiation thermometer due to the size of source effect. The deviation is calculated as a function of the field of view of the thermometer and the diameter of the radiating source. For thermometers whose field of view size at 90% power is approximately equal to the diameter of the radiating source, it was found that this effect may lead to deviations of the measured temperature of up to 6% at 200ºC and up to 14% at 500ºC. Calculations of the temperature deviation with the proposed model are performed as a function of temperature and as a function of the first order component of electrical signal.
The purpose of the studies was to estimate efficiency of delivering nebulised drugs into the lower respiratory tract through endotracheal tubes (ET tubes) which are commonly used in the treatment of uncooperative patients. Water solution of Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) was nebulised with a constant air flow (25 l/min). Experimental studies were done for eight ET tubes with varying sizes (internal diameter, length) and made of two different materials. Size distribution of aerosol leaving ET tubes was determined with the use of aerosol spectrometer. Fine Particle Fraction (FPF) and Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) were calculated for the aerosol leaving each tube. Additionally, mass of the Disodium Cromoglycate deposited into each endotracheal tube was determined. ET tubes can significantly influence the parameters of delivered aerosol depending on their diameter. FPF of aerosol delivered in to the respiratory tract is lower if small endotracheal tubes are used. However, MMAD and FPF for large endotracheal tubes are almost identical with MMAD and FPF from nebuliser. The results indicate that a substantial fraction of large droplets is eliminated from the aerosol stream in long endotracheal tubes (270 mm). In this case the mass of drug delivered through ET tubes is reduced but the content of small droplets increases (high value of FPF).
Acoustic radiation sources are successfully applied to cleaning rooms from dust of fairly large particle sizes (ten micrometers and larger). The sedimentation of fine aerosols (particle diameter of 1-10 microns) is a more complicated challenge. The paper is devoted to the substantiation of the acoustic sedimentation method for such aerosols. On the basis of the mathematical model analysis for aerosol sedimentation by the acoustic field the mechanisms of this process have been determined and include the particle coagulation acceleration and radiation pressure effect. The experimental results of the acoustic sedimentation of a model aerosol (NaCl) are shown. The calculation results according to the mathematical model for coagulation and sedimentation, on the basis of the Smolukhovsky’s equation taking into account various mechanisms of aerosol sedimentation by sound depending on the particle sizes and sound intensity, are given. The necessity to use intensive sources of high-frequency sound has been confirmed, suggesting that these sources must be located above dust clouds.
The main topic of this study is the experimental measurement and mathematical modelling of global gas hold-up and bubble size distribution in an aerated stirred vessel using the population balance method. The air-water system consisted of a mixing tank of diameter T = 0.29 m, which was equipped with a six-bladed Rushton turbine. Calculations were performed with CFD software CFX 14.5. Turbulent quantities were predicted using the standard k-ε turbulence model. Coalescence and breakup of bubbles were modelled using the homogeneous MUSIG method with 24 bubble size groups. To achieve a better prediction of the turbulent quantities, simulations were performed with much finer meshes than those that have been adopted so far for bubble size distribution modelling. Several different drag coefficient correlations were implemented in the solver, and their influence on the results was studied. Turbulent drag correction to reduce the bubble slip velocity proved to be essential to achieve agreement of the simulated gas distribution with experiments. To model the disintegration of bubbles, the widely adopted breakup model by Luo & Svendsen was used. However, its applicability was questioned.
Repeated austenitisation and furnace cooling of homogenised 0.16 wt. % carbon steels result in ferrite grain sizes between 27 μm and 24 μm. Similarly, repeated austenitisation and normal-air cooling produces ferrite grain sizes between 17 μm and 12 μm; while repeated austenitisation and forced-air cooling produces a minimum grain size of 9.5 μm. Furnace cooling decomposes the austenite eutectoidally to lamellar pearlite; while normal-air cooling and forced-air cooling after austenitisation cause degeneration of pearlite regions producing grain boundary network as well as cluster of cementite and other carbides. Forced-air cooled samples provide the highest YS (364 MPa) and UTS (520 MPa); while furnace cooling provides the lowest (290 MPa and 464 MPa) leaving the normal-air cool performance in between. Hardness values depict the role of individual ferrite and pearlite content and the extent of pearlite degeneration occurring after each cyclic treatment.