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Number of results: 18
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Abstract

Robotics specialists observe nature carefully and try to recreate the complex motions performed by people and animals with ease. Locomotion and the ability to manipulate flexible objects are especially challenging, but progress is being made.
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Abstract

In this paper, the authors present a robot for pipe inspection and exploration, which has in its structure a module for the maintenance of a constant pressure force between the robot's wheels and the inside diameter of the pipe. The paper starts with a short introduction about necessity of the presented solution followed by design aspects and finalizing with the test of the developed compliant module.
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Abstract

Programming frameworks [1] are application generators with the following components: library of software modules (building blocks out of which the system is constructed), a method for designing new modules that can be appended to the above mentioned library, a pattern according to which ready modules can be assembled into a complete system jointly exerting control over it and realizing the task at hand. The presented transition function based formalism can be applied to specifying programming frameworks for robot controllers executing very diverse tasks. The paper deals with systems consisting of multiple embodied agents, influencing the environment through e#27;ectors, gathering information from the environment through sensors and communicating with other agents through communication channels. The presented code patterns pertain to behavioural agents. The formalism was instrumental in the design of MRROC++ robot programming framework, which has been used for producing controllers of single and two manipulator systems performing diverse tasks. The formalism introduces rigor into the discussion of the structure of embodied agent controllers. It is used as the means for the specification of the functions of the components of the control system and the structure of the communication links between them. This structures the implementation of a programming framework, and that in turn makes the coding of specific controllers much easier, both from the point of view of dealing with the hardware configuration of the system and the specific task that has to be executed.
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Abstract

This article presents a hybrid control system for a group of mobile robots. The components of this system are the supervisory controller(s), employing a discrete, event-driven model of concurrent robot processes, and robot motion controllers, employing a continuous time model with event-switched modes. The missions of the robots are specified by a sequence of to-be visited points, and the developed methodology ensures in a formal way their correct accomplishment.
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Abstract

Statystyczny Polak spędza przeciętnie około 20% swojego życia na wykonywaniu pracy zawodowej, stąd działania pracodawcy, jego służb bhp i organów państwowej kontroli skupiają się nad zapewnieniem możliwie jak najbardziej bezpiecznych warunków środowiska pracy. Całkowite wyeliminowanie z otoczenia pracownika czynników, będących źródłem zagrożeń niebezpiecznych, szkodliwych bądź uciążliwych, w wielu przypadkach jest zadaniem trudnym, a często niemożliwym. Wynika to z faktu, iż dany czynnik stanowić może podstawową składową procesu technologicznego i nie może zostać wykluczony, tak jak to ma miejsce w przypadku prac szczególnie niebezpiecznych, np. podczas używania materiałów wybuchowych przeznaczonych do użytku cywilnego. W takim wypadku szczegółowa identyfikacja oraz ocena poziomu zagrożeń, uwzględniająca wiedzę ekspercką z zakresu stosowanych środków strzałowych oraz technologii, stanowi przyczynek do wzrostu poziomu bezpieczeństwa pracownika pomimo stosowania niebezpiecznych substancji, niebezpiecznych środków pracy czy niebezpiecznych technologii. W trakcie eksploatacji metodą odkrywkową jednym z najczęściej stosowanych sposobów odspojenia i rozdrobnienia złoża skalnego jest użycie materiałów wybuchowych. Taka technika urabiania powoduje konieczność zatrudnienia pracowników na stanowiskach specjalistycznych, na których występuje wiele zagrożeń tzw. ogólnokopalnianych oraz tych wynikających z bezpośredniej ekspozycji na czynnik niebezpieczny, jakim są środki strzałowe. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono szczegółową identyfikację zagrożeń na stanowiskach związanych z używaniem materiałów wybuchowych, uwzględniającą wykonywane czynności podczas realizacji robót strzałowych w górnictwie odkrywkowym oraz zróżnicowanie tych zagrożeń w przypadku stosowania różnych systemów inicjowania materiałów wybuchowych. Po zidentyfikowaniu zagrożeń dokonano ich hierarchizacji z wykorzystaniem metody Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), która jest jedną z technik wielokryterialnego podejmowania decyzji, umożliwiającą bezpośrednie porównanie między sobą i szeregowanie według przyjętych kryteriów analitycznych. Na podstawie wyników przeprowadzonych analiz sporządzono ocenę macierzową dla wyznaczenia poziomu ryzyka zagrożeń dla specjalistycznego stanowiska pracy w ruchu odkrywkowego zakładu górniczego – górnika strzałowego.
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Abstract

The primary importance of the paper is the application of the efficient formulation for the simulation of open-loop lightweight robotic manipulator. The framework employed in the paper makes use of the spatial operator algebra and the associated equations are expressed in joint space. This compact representation of the manipulator dynamics makes it possible to solve the robot forward and inverse dynamics problems in a recursive and fast manner. In the current form, the presented algorithm can be applied for the dynamics simulation of an open-loop chain system possessing any number of joints. Specifically, the formulation has been successfully applied for the analysis of the 7DOF KUKA LWR robot. Results from a number of test cases for the robot demonstrate the verification of the calculations.
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Abstract

This paper presents a concept of humanoid robot motion generation using the dedicated simplified dynamic model of the robot (Extended Cart-Table model). Humanoid robot gait with equal steps length is considered. Motion pattern is obtained here with use of Preview Control method. Motion trajectories are first obtained in simulations (off-line) and then they are verified on a test-bed. Tests performed using the real robot confirmed the correctness of the method. Robot completed a set of steps without losing its balance.
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Abstract

In the paper the new constructions of robots, modern technologies of painting and newest methods of paint robots programming were presented. Fanuc P-250iA robot using to painting was characterized. The general characteristic of robot with controller R-30iA was demonstrated. The technology and the paint equipment applied to paint frames and load-carrying boxes was shown. The possibilities of simulation software Roboguide were presented exactly, which is a tool for robot environment simulation on a computer PC. Roboguide system application can reduce the programming time of robots and necessary programs optimization conducted before implementation to production.
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Abstract

Prowadzenie eksploatacji z wykorzystaniem materiałów wybuchowych w odkrywkowych zakładach górniczych wiąże się z szeregiem zagrożeń, które należy uwzględnić w trakcie prowadzenia robót strzałowych oraz na etapie ich projektowania. Odpowiednio zaprojektowane i starannie wykonane roboty zapewniają kontrolę nad tymi zagrożeniami oraz pozwalają na przewidzenie zasięgu i intensywności ich oddziaływania na otoczenie. Jednym z zagrożeń jest rozrzut odłamków skalnych, niebezpieczny dla załogi i maszyn pracujących w zakładzie górniczym, a także otoczenia kopalni. Jest to zagrożenie niezwykle istotne, lecz trudne do jednoznacznego oszacowania. Na przestrzeni lat opracowano wiele sposobów analitycznego wyznaczenia poziomu tego zagrożenia. Część opracowanych zależności opiera się na wynikach badań terenowych, zaś część na teoriach z zakresu fizyki i balistyki. Na wielkość strefy rozrzutu ma wpływ szereg czynników geologiczno- górniczych. Część z nich na chwilę obecną, dzięki coraz szerzej rozpowszechnianym narzędziom geodezyjnym, tj. skaner laserowy, czy urządzenie typu Boretrak, możemy bardzo precyzyjnie zmierzyć (geometria ociosu, dewiacja otworów strzałowych, rzeczywisty zabiór), a niektóre tylko oszacować (m.in. występowanie ukrytych przerostów gliny lub krasów na podstawie raportów z pracy wiertnicy lub zwiercin). W artykule zaprezentowano wybrane czynniki, które wpływają na zasięg strefy oraz sposoby ich minimalizacji. Ponadto opisano wybrane metody i wzory empiryczne do szacowania zasięgu strefy oraz zaprezentowano zmienność wartości szacowanych w zależności od zmiany parametrów siatki otworów strzałowych oraz użytych środków strzałowych. W artykule dokonano również przedstawienia wybranych rozwiązań numerycznych w zakresie szacowania zasięgu rozrzutu odłamków skalnych. Algorytmy te pozwalają na wstępną ocenę dynamiki rozrzutu odłamków dla zadanych warunków brzegowych, co może stanowić perspektywiczny kierunek rozwoju aktualnie stosowanej metodologii.
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Abstract

The paper presents construction and control system of the climbing robot Safari designed at the Poznan University of Technology for inspection of high building walls, executed in order to evaluate their technical condition. Because such tasks are uncomfortable and very dangerous for humans, this mobile machine gives a possibility to observe and examine the state of the surface on which it is moving. The robot is a construction developed for walking on flat but uneven vertical and horizontal surfaces. Its on-board equipment provides ability to remotely examine and record images reflecting the robot’s surroundings. At the beginning of the paper, several concepts of existing climbing robots (four-legged, six-legged, sliding platform) are outlined. Next, the mechanical system of the Safari robot is presented with special emphasis on its kinematic equations and description of movement stages. Then, the on-board manipulator as well as the sensor and control systems are described.
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Abstract

A system setup for measurements of acoustic field, together with the results of 3D visualisations of acoustic energy flow are presented in the paper. Spatial sampling of the field is performed by a Cartesian robot. Automatization of the measurement process is achieved with the use of a specialized control system. The method is based on measuring the sound pressure (scalar) and particle velocity(vector) quantities. The aim of the system is to collect data with a high precision and repeatability. The system is employed for measurements of acoustic energy flow in the proximity of an artificial head in an anechoic chamber. In the measurement setup an algorithm for generation of the probe movement path is included. The algorithm finds the optimum path of the robot movement, taking into account a given 3D object shape present in the measurement space. The results are presented for two cases, first without any obstacle and the other - with an artificial head in the sound field.
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Abstract

Screw axis measurement methods obtain a precise identification of the physical reality of the industrial robots’ geometry. However, these methods are in a clear disadvantage compared to mathematical optimisation processes for kinematical parameters. That’s because mathematical processes obtain kinematical parameters which best reduce the robot errors, despite not necessarily representing the real geometry of the robot. This paper takes the next step at the identification of a robot’s movement from the identification of its real kinematical parameters for the later study of every articulation’s rotation. We then obtain a combination of real kinematic and dynamic parameters which describe the robot’s movement, improving its precision with a physical understanding of the errors.
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Abstract

This paper presents a design of a tracked in-pipe inspection mobile robot with an adaptive drive positioning system. The robot is intended to operate in circular and rectangular pipes and ducts, oriented horizontally and vertically. The paper covers a design process of a virtual prototype, focusing on track adaptation to work environment. A mathematical description of a kinematic model of the robot is presented. Operation of the prototype in pipes with a cross-section greater than 210 mm is described. Laboratory tests that validate the design and enable determination of energy consumption of the robot are presented.
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Abstract

In the presented paper, a problem of nonholonomic constrained mechanical systems is treated. New methods in nonholonomic mechanics are applied to a problem of a Forklift-truck robot motion. This method of the geometrical theory of general nonholonomic constrained systems on fibered manifolds and their jet prolongations, based on so-called Chetaev-type constraint forces. The relevance of this theory for general types of nonholonomic constraints, not only linear or affine ones, was then verified on appropriate models. On the other hand, the equations of motion of a Forklift-truck robot are highly nonlinear and rolling without slipping condition can only be expressed by nonholonomic constraint equations. In this paper, the geometrical theory is applied to the above mentioned mechanical problem. The results of numerical solutions of constrained equations of motion, derived within the theory, are presented.
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Abstract

The process of designing control systems for devices operating in microgravity, on-orbit environment, requires testing to verify the effectiveness and characteristics of the algorithms. The key issue is to design a relevant environment in terrestrial conditions that affects both the linear and angular three-dimensional motion of a rigid body. This paper contains a description of the mechanical aspects of two test beds used to evaluate control algorithms planned for use in a space manipulator. Two solutions are presented: (i) a planar manipulator with a free base placed on an air-bearing table; and (ii) a test bed with a 7-DOF manipulator fixed through a force-torque measurement system to the base.
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Abstract

In this paper we propose a sensor-based navigation method for navigation of wheeled mobile robot, based on the Kohonen self-organising map (SOM). We discuss a sensor-based approach to path design and control of wheeled mobile robot in an unknown 2-D environment with static obstacles. A strategy of reactive navigation is developed including two main behaviours: a reaching the middle of a collision-free space behaviour, and a goal-seeking behaviour. Each low-level behaviour has been designed at design stage and then fused to determine a proper actions acting on the environment at running stage. The combiner can fuse low-level behaviours so that the mobile robot can go for the goal position without colliding with obstacles one for the convex obstacles and one for the concave ones. The combiner is a softswitch, based on the idea of artificial potential fields, that chooses more then one action to be active with diRerent degrees at each time step. The output of the navigation level is fed into a neural tracking controller that takes into account the dynamics of the mobile robot. The purpose of the neural controller is to generate the commands for the servo-systems of the robot so it may choose its way to its goal autonomously, while reacting in real-time to unexpected events. Computer simulation has been conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed solution by a series of experiments on the emulator of wheeled mobile robot Pioneer-2DX.
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