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Number of results: 29
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Abstract

Robotics specialists observe nature carefully and try to recreate the complex motions performed by people and animals with ease. Locomotion and the ability to manipulate flexible objects are especially challenging, but progress is being made.
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Abstract

Programming frameworks [1] are application generators with the following components: library of software modules (building blocks out of which the system is constructed), a method for designing new modules that can be appended to the above mentioned library, a pattern according to which ready modules can be assembled into a complete system jointly exerting control over it and realizing the task at hand. The presented transition function based formalism can be applied to specifying programming frameworks for robot controllers executing very diverse tasks. The paper deals with systems consisting of multiple embodied agents, influencing the environment through e#27;ectors, gathering information from the environment through sensors and communicating with other agents through communication channels. The presented code patterns pertain to behavioural agents. The formalism was instrumental in the design of MRROC++ robot programming framework, which has been used for producing controllers of single and two manipulator systems performing diverse tasks. The formalism introduces rigor into the discussion of the structure of embodied agent controllers. It is used as the means for the specification of the functions of the components of the control system and the structure of the communication links between them. This structures the implementation of a programming framework, and that in turn makes the coding of specific controllers much easier, both from the point of view of dealing with the hardware configuration of the system and the specific task that has to be executed.
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Abstract

In this paper, the authors present a robot for pipe inspection and exploration, which has in its structure a module for the maintenance of a constant pressure force between the robot's wheels and the inside diameter of the pipe. The paper starts with a short introduction about necessity of the presented solution followed by design aspects and finalizing with the test of the developed compliant module.
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Abstract

This article presents a hybrid control system for a group of mobile robots. The components of this system are the supervisory controller(s), employing a discrete, event-driven model of concurrent robot processes, and robot motion controllers, employing a continuous time model with event-switched modes. The missions of the robots are specified by a sequence of to-be visited points, and the developed methodology ensures in a formal way their correct accomplishment.
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Abstract

Statystyczny Polak spędza przeciętnie około 20% swojego życia na wykonywaniu pracy zawodowej, stąd działania pracodawcy, jego służb bhp i organów państwowej kontroli skupiają się nad zapewnieniem możliwie jak najbardziej bezpiecznych warunków środowiska pracy. Całkowite wyeliminowanie z otoczenia pracownika czynników, będących źródłem zagrożeń niebezpiecznych, szkodliwych bądź uciążliwych, w wielu przypadkach jest zadaniem trudnym, a często niemożliwym. Wynika to z faktu, iż dany czynnik stanowić może podstawową składową procesu technologicznego i nie może zostać wykluczony, tak jak to ma miejsce w przypadku prac szczególnie niebezpiecznych, np. podczas używania materiałów wybuchowych przeznaczonych do użytku cywilnego. W takim wypadku szczegółowa identyfikacja oraz ocena poziomu zagrożeń, uwzględniająca wiedzę ekspercką z zakresu stosowanych środków strzałowych oraz technologii, stanowi przyczynek do wzrostu poziomu bezpieczeństwa pracownika pomimo stosowania niebezpiecznych substancji, niebezpiecznych środków pracy czy niebezpiecznych technologii. W trakcie eksploatacji metodą odkrywkową jednym z najczęściej stosowanych sposobów odspojenia i rozdrobnienia złoża skalnego jest użycie materiałów wybuchowych. Taka technika urabiania powoduje konieczność zatrudnienia pracowników na stanowiskach specjalistycznych, na których występuje wiele zagrożeń tzw. ogólnokopalnianych oraz tych wynikających z bezpośredniej ekspozycji na czynnik niebezpieczny, jakim są środki strzałowe. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono szczegółową identyfikację zagrożeń na stanowiskach związanych z używaniem materiałów wybuchowych, uwzględniającą wykonywane czynności podczas realizacji robót strzałowych w górnictwie odkrywkowym oraz zróżnicowanie tych zagrożeń w przypadku stosowania różnych systemów inicjowania materiałów wybuchowych. Po zidentyfikowaniu zagrożeń dokonano ich hierarchizacji z wykorzystaniem metody Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), która jest jedną z technik wielokryterialnego podejmowania decyzji, umożliwiającą bezpośrednie porównanie między sobą i szeregowanie według przyjętych kryteriów analitycznych. Na podstawie wyników przeprowadzonych analiz sporządzono ocenę macierzową dla wyznaczenia poziomu ryzyka zagrożeń dla specjalistycznego stanowiska pracy w ruchu odkrywkowego zakładu górniczego – górnika strzałowego.
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Abstract

Supplementing well recognised practical models of project and construction management, based on probabilistic and fuzzy events may make possible to transfer the weight of the change and extra orders assessment from the qualitative form to a quantitative one. This assessment, however, is naturally burdened with an immeasurable, subjective aspect. Elaboration of probability of occurrence in a construction project unforeseen building works requires application (in addition to the non-measureable, qualitative criteria) of measurable (quantitative) criteria which still appear during construction project implementation. In reimbursable engineering contracts, a random event described as an extra, supplementary building work has a random character and occurs with a specific likelihood. In lump sum contracts, on the other hand, such a random event has a fuzzy character and its occurrence is defined in a linear manner by the function of affiliation to the set of fuzzy events being identical with unforeseen events. The strive for quantitative presentation of criteria regarded by nature as qualitative and the intention to determine relations between them led to the application of the fuzzy sets theory to this issue. Their properties enable description of the unforeseen works of construction projects in an unambiguous, quantitative way.
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Abstract

This paper presents a concept of humanoid robot motion generation using the dedicated simplified dynamic model of the robot (Extended Cart-Table model). Humanoid robot gait with equal steps length is considered. Motion pattern is obtained here with use of Preview Control method. Motion trajectories are first obtained in simulations (off-line) and then they are verified on a test-bed. Tests performed using the real robot confirmed the correctness of the method. Robot completed a set of steps without losing its balance.
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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present an in-pipe modular robotic system that can navigate inaccessible industrial pipes in order to check their condition, locate leakages, and clean the ventilation systems. The aspects concerning the development of a lightweight and energy efficient modular robotic system are presented. The paper starts with a short introduction about modular inspection systems in the first chapter, followed by design aspects and finalizing with the test of the developed robotic system.
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Abstract

This paper identifies the adverse events occurring during the execution of water supply and sewerage systems construction. The basis for this paper is research conducted in 2010-2014 on the construction sites of water supply and sewerage systems located in the provinces of Lower Silesia and Opole. The research consisted of direct observations of construction sites and review of construction documentation. It showed that work stoppages on the examined construction sites were frequent. They were caused by violations of work discipline by the production employees, adverse weather conditions, and defects in the project documentation. The study demonstrated that in almost every case, these bad an adverse effect on the completion date and budget of the investment. The analyses show that in such important and expensive investments as water supply and sewerage systems, organizational structures in which a special role is assigned to middle-rank personnel should be adopted.
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Abstract

In Poland, it often happens that construction objects are subject to demolition work for different reasons. Demolition, according the Construction Law, is defined as a type of construction works and, as such, represents a particular type of construction project. As in other construction projects, a very important phase, in addition to execution of the works, is to prepare, design and plan demolition works. Some demolition activities are covered by appropriate regulations and can be described as typical. On the other hand the technical side of demolition works depends on many factors such as: the type of building, its age, technical condition, type of construction, etc. This article covers the analysis of the stages and tasks in the preparatory phase of the building demolition. This work will also present a description of the tasks carried out during the demolition works based on the example of a historic tenement house located in Krakow. This analysis aims to identify implementation problems and sources of risk that may occur during this type of construction work.
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Abstract

The primary importance of the paper is the application of the efficient formulation for the simulation of open-loop lightweight robotic manipulator. The framework employed in the paper makes use of the spatial operator algebra and the associated equations are expressed in joint space. This compact representation of the manipulator dynamics makes it possible to solve the robot forward and inverse dynamics problems in a recursive and fast manner. In the current form, the presented algorithm can be applied for the dynamics simulation of an open-loop chain system possessing any number of joints. Specifically, the formulation has been successfully applied for the analysis of the 7DOF KUKA LWR robot. Results from a number of test cases for the robot demonstrate the verification of the calculations.
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Abstract

O tym, dlaczego obawiamy się humanoidalnych robotów, a także o tym, czy oglądanie maszyn grających w piłkę jest przyjemne, opowiada dr Aleksandra Przegalinska.
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Abstract

In the paper the new constructions of robots, modern technologies of painting and newest methods of paint robots programming were presented. Fanuc P-250iA robot using to painting was characterized. The general characteristic of robot with controller R-30iA was demonstrated. The technology and the paint equipment applied to paint frames and load-carrying boxes was shown. The possibilities of simulation software Roboguide were presented exactly, which is a tool for robot environment simulation on a computer PC. Roboguide system application can reduce the programming time of robots and necessary programs optimization conducted before implementation to production.
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Abstract

Prowadzenie eksploatacji z wykorzystaniem materiałów wybuchowych w odkrywkowych zakładach górniczych wiąże się z szeregiem zagrożeń, które należy uwzględnić w trakcie prowadzenia robót strzałowych oraz na etapie ich projektowania. Odpowiednio zaprojektowane i starannie wykonane roboty zapewniają kontrolę nad tymi zagrożeniami oraz pozwalają na przewidzenie zasięgu i intensywności ich oddziaływania na otoczenie. Jednym z zagrożeń jest rozrzut odłamków skalnych, niebezpieczny dla załogi i maszyn pracujących w zakładzie górniczym, a także otoczenia kopalni. Jest to zagrożenie niezwykle istotne, lecz trudne do jednoznacznego oszacowania. Na przestrzeni lat opracowano wiele sposobów analitycznego wyznaczenia poziomu tego zagrożenia. Część opracowanych zależności opiera się na wynikach badań terenowych, zaś część na teoriach z zakresu fizyki i balistyki. Na wielkość strefy rozrzutu ma wpływ szereg czynników geologiczno- górniczych. Część z nich na chwilę obecną, dzięki coraz szerzej rozpowszechnianym narzędziom geodezyjnym, tj. skaner laserowy, czy urządzenie typu Boretrak, możemy bardzo precyzyjnie zmierzyć (geometria ociosu, dewiacja otworów strzałowych, rzeczywisty zabiór), a niektóre tylko oszacować (m.in. występowanie ukrytych przerostów gliny lub krasów na podstawie raportów z pracy wiertnicy lub zwiercin). W artykule zaprezentowano wybrane czynniki, które wpływają na zasięg strefy oraz sposoby ich minimalizacji. Ponadto opisano wybrane metody i wzory empiryczne do szacowania zasięgu strefy oraz zaprezentowano zmienność wartości szacowanych w zależności od zmiany parametrów siatki otworów strzałowych oraz użytych środków strzałowych. W artykule dokonano również przedstawienia wybranych rozwiązań numerycznych w zakresie szacowania zasięgu rozrzutu odłamków skalnych. Algorytmy te pozwalają na wstępną ocenę dynamiki rozrzutu odłamków dla zadanych warunków brzegowych, co może stanowić perspektywiczny kierunek rozwoju aktualnie stosowanej metodologii.
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Abstract

Screw axis measurement methods obtain a precise identification of the physical reality of the industrial robots’ geometry. However, these methods are in a clear disadvantage compared to mathematical optimisation processes for kinematical parameters. That’s because mathematical processes obtain kinematical parameters which best reduce the robot errors, despite not necessarily representing the real geometry of the robot. This paper takes the next step at the identification of a robot’s movement from the identification of its real kinematical parameters for the later study of every articulation’s rotation. We then obtain a combination of real kinematic and dynamic parameters which describe the robot’s movement, improving its precision with a physical understanding of the errors.
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Abstract

A system setup for measurements of acoustic field, together with the results of 3D visualisations of acoustic energy flow are presented in the paper. Spatial sampling of the field is performed by a Cartesian robot. Automatization of the measurement process is achieved with the use of a specialized control system. The method is based on measuring the sound pressure (scalar) and particle velocity(vector) quantities. The aim of the system is to collect data with a high precision and repeatability. The system is employed for measurements of acoustic energy flow in the proximity of an artificial head in an anechoic chamber. In the measurement setup an algorithm for generation of the probe movement path is included. The algorithm finds the optimum path of the robot movement, taking into account a given 3D object shape present in the measurement space. The results are presented for two cases, first without any obstacle and the other - with an artificial head in the sound field.
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Abstract

The paper presents construction and control system of the climbing robot Safari designed at the Poznan University of Technology for inspection of high building walls, executed in order to evaluate their technical condition. Because such tasks are uncomfortable and very dangerous for humans, this mobile machine gives a possibility to observe and examine the state of the surface on which it is moving. The robot is a construction developed for walking on flat but uneven vertical and horizontal surfaces. Its on-board equipment provides ability to remotely examine and record images reflecting the robot’s surroundings. At the beginning of the paper, several concepts of existing climbing robots (four-legged, six-legged, sliding platform) are outlined. Next, the mechanical system of the Safari robot is presented with special emphasis on its kinematic equations and description of movement stages. Then, the on-board manipulator as well as the sensor and control systems are described.
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Abstract

Contemporary research on mobile robotics aims at designing robots that will be able to traverse an extremely varied environment. One of the most universal modes of locomotion is the serpentine movement. A majority of modern snake-like robots use electric drives. This study presents a snake-like robot made out of McKibben muscles. Using a pneumatic cable with muscles arranged in series, it is possible to create a robot of any length, limited only by the length of the muscle cables. Because the control system and the body of the robot are separate, the robot can be used for rescue missions involving high risk of explosion of flammable substances and for missions taking place on extremely difficult terrain.
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Abstract

The paper presents a prototype of a rehabilitation robot for lower extremities. It is created on the basis of cylindrical kinematic model, equipped with two rigid arms, special handles and fixtures. It has five active degrees of freedom and is designed to repeat the trajectories generated by physiotherapist during the learning phase. Presented prototype of rehabilitation robot has the ability to replay different types of trained exercises such as: hip and knee flexion/extension, leg abduction/adduction. The protection system (including overload detection) implemented in the robot ensures safe working with patients.
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Abstract

In this paper, we present an optimization mechanism for two popular landmark-based mobile robot visual homing algorithms (ALV and HiSS), called vector pre-assigned mechanism (VPM). VPM contains two branches, both of which can promote the homing performance effectively. In addition, to make the landmark distribution satisfy the equal distance assumption, a landmark optimization strategy is proposed based on imaging principle of the panoramic vision. Experiments on both panoramic image database and a real mobile robot have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
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Abstract

Żyjemy w czasach, w których wzrasta znaczenie sztucznej inteligencji oraz oczekiwanie na coraz bardziej inteligentne systemy. W miarę jak sztuczna inteligencja i inteligentne roboty przejmują od człowieka różne funkcje, pojawiają się pytania o rodzaj i zakres ich działania w stosunku do możliwości człowieka. Proces ten rodzi pytanie, czy można wskazać takie sfery ludzkiej aktywności, które nie mogą być powielone przez inteligentne programy lub roboty? Na pierwszy rzut oka takimi własnościami człowieka jest emocjonalność, uczuciowość i twórczość. W niniejszym artykule analizuję, czy inteligentne roboty mogłyby być twórcze artystycznie i zastępować w tym procesie człowieka. Zakładam, że choć trudno jest w dzisiejszych czasach wskazaćnowatorsko twórcze roboty, to równie trudno podawać w wątpliwość fakt, że roboty w jakimś sensie tworzą sztukę. Wprawdzie z dzisiejszej perspektywy natura ludzka jest jeszcze pod tym względem niepowielalna przez roboty i sztuczną inteligencję, ale równocześnie wykracza się w niej coraz bardziej poza postawę antropocentryczną, przyjmując, że twórczość nie jest wyłącznąwłasnością, lecz jedynie właściwością człowieka, i że mówiąc o sztucznej inteligencji, można dopuścić myśl o uprawianej przez nią twórczości.
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Abstract

Article deals with the problem of technology selection for construction project. Three criteria were proposed: cost, time and technological complexity. To solve the problem, fuzzy preference relations were used. Authors present an algorithm supporting multi-criteria decision-making process. The algorithm creates fuzzy preference relations on the basis of the fuzzy comparison: “xᵢ is better than xj”.Then, with the use of criteria weights it creates general fuzzy preference relation, finds all non-dominated (admissible) alternatives and the best one among them. The algorithm consists of 7 steps. Authors show application of the proposed algorithm – example calculations.
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Abstract

The basic element of a project organizing construction works is a schedule. The preparation of the data necessary to specify the timings of the construction completion as indicated in the schedule involves information that is uncertain and hard to quantify. The article presents the methods of building a schedule which includes a fuzzy amount of labour, time standards and number of workers. The proposed procedure allows determining the real deadline for project completion, taking into account variable factors affecting the duration of the individual works.
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Abstract

This paper presents a design of a tracked in-pipe inspection mobile robot with an adaptive drive positioning system. The robot is intended to operate in circular and rectangular pipes and ducts, oriented horizontally and vertically. The paper covers a design process of a virtual prototype, focusing on track adaptation to work environment. A mathematical description of a kinematic model of the robot is presented. Operation of the prototype in pipes with a cross-section greater than 210 mm is described. Laboratory tests that validate the design and enable determination of energy consumption of the robot are presented.
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Abstract

In the presented paper, a problem of nonholonomic constrained mechanical systems is treated. New methods in nonholonomic mechanics are applied to a problem of a Forklift-truck robot motion. This method of the geometrical theory of general nonholonomic constrained systems on fibered manifolds and their jet prolongations, based on so-called Chetaev-type constraint forces. The relevance of this theory for general types of nonholonomic constraints, not only linear or affine ones, was then verified on appropriate models. On the other hand, the equations of motion of a Forklift-truck robot are highly nonlinear and rolling without slipping condition can only be expressed by nonholonomic constraint equations. In this paper, the geometrical theory is applied to the above mentioned mechanical problem. The results of numerical solutions of constrained equations of motion, derived within the theory, are presented.
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