Statistical conformity criteria for the compressive strength of concrete are a matter of debate. The criteria can have prejudicial effects on construction quality and reliability. Hence, the usefulness of statistical criteria for the small sample size n = 3 is questioned. These defects can cause a reduction in the quality of produced concrete and, consequently, too much risk for the recipient (investor). For this reason, the influence of conformity control on the value of the reliability index of concrete and reinforced concrete has been determined. The authors limited their consideration to the recommended standards PN-EN 206-1, PN-EN 1992 and ISO 2394 method of reliability index, which belongs to the analytical methods FORM (First Order Reliability Method). It assumes that the random variables are defined by two parameters of the normal distribution or an equivalent normal: the mean and the standard deviation. The impact of conformity control for n = 3 for concrete structures, designed according to the Eurocode 1992, for which the compressive strength of concrete is the capacity dominant parameter (sensitivity factor of dominating resistance parameter according to the FORM is 0.8), has been determined by evaluation of the reliability index.
The study deals with stability and dynamic problems in bar structures using a probabilistic approach. Structural design parameters are defined as deterministic values and also as random variables, which are not correlated. The criterion of structural failure is expressed by the condition of non-exceeding the admissible load multiplier and condition of non-exceeding the admissible vertical displacement. The Hasofer-Lind index was used as a reliability measure. The primary research tool is the FORM method. In order to verify the correctness of the calculations Monte Carlo and Importance Sampling methods were used. The sensitivity of the reliability index to the random variables was defined. The limit state function is not an explicit function of random variables. This dependence was determined using a numerical procedure, e.g. the finite element methods. The paper aims to present the communication between the STAND reliability analysis program and the KRATA and MES3D external FE programs.
The paper presents a proposal for the assessment of the reliability of steel truss (both statically determinate and indeterminate) in the persistent and accidental design situation. In the analysis, a probabilistic approach was used. The global Hasofer-Lind reliability index was employed, computed in successive time steps for the whole structure, not for individual elements. The statically determinate truss was modelled as a serial system from the reliability standpoint. For the statically indeterminate truss, kinematically admissible failure mechanisms were determined by means of the examination of the singularity of the stiffness matrix of the structure, converting the truss into a geometrically variable system. For the problem thus formulated, a serial-parallel reliability model was constructed. Monitoring the reliability index in the successive minutes of the fire makes it possible to estimate the probability of the structure failure, and to decide whether the required safety level is maintained.
Since psychology emerged as an independent field of knowledge, there has been no consensus as to how it should develop, either, in the idiographic or nomothetic way. In the course of time, due to a commitment to what was seen as objectivity in science, the nomothetic approach came to dominate psychology. Thus, researchers used mostly quantitative psychometric methods to establish general rules of human behaviour. In doing so, the essence of nomothetic research is to be extremely careful when interpreting results not to make a reasoning mistake such as the ecological fallacy, as may happen when a researcher draws conclusions about nature of the individual in the group based on average results of the whole group. In the article, we presented two methods for longitudinal research designs which address this problem, and give more idiographic information about participants; via the Reliable Change Index and the Modified Brinley Plot. Finally, we provide a IBM SPSS Statistics syntax automatizing the whole process of computation for these new features.
In the paper, the Hasofer-Lind index is applied for determining the probability of stability loss oftruss structure under random load. In 1974 Hasofer-Lind proposed a modified reliability index thatdid not exhibit the invariance problem. The “correction” is the evaluation the limit state functionat a point known as the “design point”, instead of the mean values. The design point is generallynot known a priori, an iteration technique must be used to find out the reliability index. The papershows how the reliability index changes under the influence of different variables mean value,standard deviation, and probability density function.