The purpose of the study was to study the activity of the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) act- ing on FSHR and LHR in rat ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Sixty rats were di- vided into six groups. Rats in the dose group received genistein at a concentration of either 5 (low genistein dose group, L-gen), 10 (middle genistein dose group, M-Gen) or 20 (high genistein dose group, H-Gen) mg per kg of body weight per day. Estrogen group (EG, received 0.5 mg/kg Dieth- ylstilbestrol). Concentration of sex hormones in serum was quantified by enzyme-linked immuno- sorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and lutein- izing hormone receptor (LHR) protein were determined by immunohistochemistry. Treatment with genistein resulted in a strong stimulation of the concentration of sex hormone in serum. The concentration of progesterone and FSH was signiﬁcantly higher in H-Gen when compared to the PCOS model control group (MG) (P < 0.01). In contrast, the concentration of testosterone, LH and the ratio of LH/FSH decreased in GEN treatment groups compared to MG, the effect was statistically significant, tested by the ANOVA test (p<0.01). For hormone receptor activity, treat- ment with genistein resulted in an improvement of ovarian function with LHR protein expression being enhanced and FSHR protein expression being suppressed. Our results demonstrate that Genistein played a significant role in regulating FSH and LH receptor expression to improve perimenopausal ovarian and uterine function.
The full-length cDNA of LeTIR1 gene was isolated from tomato with EST-based in silico cloning followed by RACE amplification. LeTIR1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) 1872 bp long, encoding 624 amino acid residues. The predicted protein LeTIR1 had one F-box motif and eleven leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), all of which are highly conserved in TIR1 proteins of other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LeTIR1 protein shared high similarity with other known TIR1 proteins. Both sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested that LeTIR1 is a TIR1 homologue and encodes an F-box protein in tomato. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that LeTIR1 was expressed constitutively in all organs tested, with higher expression in stem than root, leaf, flower and fruit. Its expression level was positively correlated with the auxin distribution in stem or axillary shoot, and was induced by spraying exogenous IAA.
The present study investigated the expression of androgen receptor (AR) in neurons of the anterior pelvic ganglion (APG) and celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG; ganglion not involved in the innervation of reproductive organs) in the male pig with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. qPCR investigations revealed that the level of AR gene expression in the APG tissue was approximately 2.5 times higher in the adult (180-day-old) than in the juvenile (7-day-old) boars. Furthermore, in both the adult and juvenile animals it was sig- nificantly higher in the APG than in CSMG tissue (42 and 85 times higher, respectively). Immu- nofluorescence results fully confirmed those obtained with qPCR. In the adult boars, nearly all adrenergic (DβH-positive) and the majority of non-adrenergic neurons in APG stained for AR. In the juvenile animals, about half of the adrenergic and non-adrenergic neurons were AR-posi- tive. In both the adult and juvenile animals, only solitary CSMG neurons stained for AR. The present results suggest that in the male pig, pelvic neurons should be considered as an element of highly testosterone-dependent autonomic circuits involved in the regulation of urogenital func- tion, and that their sensitization to androgens is a dynamic process, increasing during the prepu- bertal period.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the American and European population is estimated to be extremely high. Although fewer people today suff er from serious health problems related to calcium and phosphate metabolism resulting from vitamin D deficiency, there are more and more studies suggesting that calcitriol may play an important role in the pathogenesis of other diseases in virtually every body system. A growing body of research shows that through its ubiquitously expressed receptor, calcitriol displays potent anti-angiogenic an anti-inflammatory activity. Th is review summarizes recent discoveries regarding these non-classical eff ects of vitamin D and their clinical implications. Data collection focused on the prevention and treatment of ocular diseases as well as on the underlying mechanisms.
Background: In early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP), systemic inflammatory response syndrome may lead to organ failure. The severe form of AP is associated with high mortality that may be prevented by timely diagnosis and treatment of the predicted severe cases. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) have been proposed as accurate early markers of severe AP. The aim of the study was to assess whether widely available blood count indexes: neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR), lymphocyte to monocyte (LMR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratios correlate with IL-6 and uPAR and may be utilized to predict organ complications at the early phase of AP. Methods: The study included 95 adult patients with AP treated at the Surgical Ward Complex of Health Care Centers in Wadowice, Poland. Organ failure was diagnosed according to modified Marshall scoring system, as recommended by 2012 Atlanta classification. Blood samples for laboratory tests were collected on days 1, 2 and 3 following the onset of AP symptoms. Results: Patients with organ failure presented significantly lower LMR on day 1 and signifi cantly higher NLR on days 2 and 3. Strong positive correlations between NLR and IL-6 and moderate correlations between NLR and uPAR were observed throughout the study. Day 2 and 3 NLR values significantly predicted organ failure at the early phase of AP. Conclusions: Taking into account the wide availability of NLR, it may be considered as a surrogate of more expensive tests to help the early assessment of organ failure complicating AP.