The main purpose of this study was to identify the mineral composition of soil sample taken from the upper layer of topsoil. High absorption of chemical substance is a characteristic for humus-organic layer of topsoil. The source of those substance could be a pollutant emitted to the atmosphere by human activity. The research area includes Upper Silesia region, which is the most industrial region of Poland. In the present study, the phase composition of the top soil separates were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of seven mineral phases in the material magnetic separated by lower current (quartz, illite, kaolinite, Fe3+ oxides, hematite, magnetite and pyrite). In case of higher current were identified four phases (quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and K0.94 Na0.06(AlSi3O8)). Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for an extensive analysis of iron-containing phases (pyrrhotite, magnetite, aluminosilicate oxides with Fe3+ and kaolinite/Fe2+ silicate).