The attempt was made to describe the dynamics of water masses in the southern part of the Drake Passage and the Bransfield Strait in the time period from December 1983 to January 1984. The dynamic topography at the surface (referred to 500 dbar surface) allowed to define the eastward flow of water in the Bransfield Strait and to observe, in the same region, the presence of a rather weak counter-current of the Weddell Sea origin. In the Drake Passage, a general north-eastern direction of water flow of the Bellingshausen Sea was found. In the Bransfield Strait, as well as in the Drake Passage, the relative velocities of geostrophic flow were low: 0.22 and 0.06 m s-1 respectively. The analysis of Rossby and eddy numbers and Rossby radius made it possible to regionalize the dynamic phenomena but could not be fully used for their classification.
In this paper is discussed the effect of the inoculant mischmetal addition on the microstructure of the magnesium alloy AZ91. The concentration of the inoculant was increased in the samples within the range from 0.1% up to 0.6%. The thermal process was performed with the use of Derivative and Thermal Analysis (DTA). A particular attention was paid to finding the optimal amount of the inoculant, which causes fragmentation of the microstructure. The concentration of each element was verified with use of a spark spectrometer. In addition, the microstructures of every samples were examined with the use of an optical microscope and also was performed an image analysis with a statistical analysis using the NIS–Elements program. The point of those analyses was to examine the differences in the grain diameters of phase αMg and eutectic αMg+γ(Mg17Al12) in the prepared samples as well as the average size of each type of grain by way of measuring their perimeters. This paper is the second part of the introduction into a bigger research on grain refinement of magnesium alloys, especially AZ91. Another purpose of this research is to achieve better microstructure fragmentation of magnesium alloys without the relevant changes of the chemical composition, which should improve the mechanical properties.
Complex analysis ofgeomorphological glacial processes in forefields of retreating glaciers in the southern Bellsund region was undertaken. Field studies and archival cartographic materials indicate continued glacial retreat, at least since the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Its average present rate of about 20 m/y is rather high and no moraine ridges are formed, except for the fluted moraines. Forefields of large glaciers are characterized by typical relief and sediments of frontal deglaciation only. Intensity and extent of glacial forefield remodelling depends mainly on activity ablation waters. At present glaciofluvial erosion predominates.
During the planning and controlling of the construction process, most attention is focu sed on risk analysis, especially in the context of final costs and deadlines of the investment. In this analysis, the primary and most significant concern is the proper identification and quantification of events, which on a certain level of probability may affect the development process. This paper presents the result of a risk analysis for a particular building object, made after completion of the investment and accepting it for use. Knowledge of the planned values and the actual investment process allowed for the identification of the events and their effects that in this case have significantly disrupted the investment process. The limited total cost of the investment project in question had a considerable impact on the progress of the project execution. Despite three transitions of administrative procedures, the opening date of the shopping centre was delayed by only three weeks.
The problems related to construction production are multi-faceted and complex. This has promoted the search for different methods/approaches for analizing the data which supports the decision-making process in the construction industry. In the article the authors focus their attention on well-known methods and tools, and on some new approaches to solving decision-making problems. The aim of the article is to analyze the methods used to analyse data in a construction company, convey their advantages and disadvantages, and specify the degree of efficiency in the discussed area.
A mine cannot function without monitoring systems: environmental, basic mining machinery and equipment. The exploitation of ore in the mine depends heavily on properly functioning machines and mining equipment, and acceptable for the miner technical environmental conditions occurring in underground excavations. The monitoring systems of the technical environment in underground mines are primarily telemetry and gasometry systems. The first part of the article shows the typical structure of gasometry systems operating in the Polish underground mines. The existing provisions include the so-called security systems of the mining plant. The article presents a quantitative summary of the telephone exchange types and count of main telecommunication lines operating in these systems. Monitoring systems of machines and mining equipment are an essential element of the effec-tive management of the mine, because they affect the safe operation and increase time of effi-ciency equipment. The second part of the article shows selected monitoring systems of mining machinery and equipment currently used in the dispatcher rooms of mines. Attention was paid to the monitoring systems, which are only software tools as well as those in which additionally use dedicated IT solutions for these systems, hardware and measuring tools. The table shows the types of monitoring systems and technological configurations used in underground mines, preferred for them.
The complexity of the phenomena associated with the course of the cognitive processes that determine an efficient learning, excludes the possibility of collecting knowledge in other ways than neuronal-information. It excludes also possibilities of interpreting it, in other ways than with use of respectively formalized cognitive models. The presented paper is a kind of summary of the latest achievements in this field.
Accurate demagnetization modelling is mandatory for a reliable design of rare-earth permanent magnet applications, such as e.g. synchronous machines. The magnetization of rare-earth permanent magnets requires high magnetizing fields. For technical reasons, it is not always possible to completely and homogeneously achieve the required field strength during a pulse magnetization, due to stray fields or eddy currents. Not sufficiently magnetized magnets lose remanence as well as coercivity and the demagnetization characteristic becomes strongly nonlinear. It is state of the art to treat demagnetization curves as linear. This paper presents an approach to model the nonlinear demagnetization in dependence on the magnetization field strength. Measurements of magnetization dependent demagnetization characteristics of rare-earth permanent magnets are compared to an analytical model description. The physical meaning of the model parameters and the influence on them by incomplete magnetization are discussed for different rare-earth permanent magnet materials. Basically, the analytic function is able to map the occurring magnetization dependent demagnetization behavior. However, if the magnetization is incomplete, the model parameters have a strong nonlinear behavior and can only be partially attributed to physical effects. As a benefit the model can represent nonlinear demagnetization using a few parameters only. The original analytical model is from literature but has been adapted for the incomplete magnetization. The discussed effect is not sufficiently accurate modelled in literature. The sparse data in literature has been supplemented with additional pulsed-field magnetometer measurements.
In recent years, the Budryk Coal Mine (KWK Budryk) reached the mining depth of 1300 m, where there is about 160 million tons of coal, including 120 million tons of coking coal (type 35). The task of the Coal Processing Plant complex modernization was undertaken. The article presents the modernization of coal screening, classification and dewatering systems at the KWK Budryk Processing Plant and the implementation of screening of PROGRESS ECO sp. z o.o. SK. The modernization project defined the following technical requirements for all screens in the KWK Budryk Coal Processing Plant extension project: - Vibrating screens with a linear type drive with a drive unit placed on the drive beam of the trommel screen in the form of vibration generators; - Screen drives equipped with a starting-braking device; - The use of main screen drive bearings with a nominal service life of at least 40,000 man-hours; - All work surfaces made of materials with a strength of up to 80 mm grain and abrasion resistance; side strips and sieves fixed in a way ensuring trouble-free operation, and at the same time quick and easy replacement; - Sheets made of stainless steel; - Side walls, beams and other elements attached to them connected with screws using a system protecting against corrosion and elements separation; - The use of a work parameters monitoring and visualization system, i.e. - pitch of the riddle, - bearing operating temperatures and the condition of their wear. Three types of screens were provided: - PWP1-1Z-2,8x6,0 screeners that alternatively perform sieving or desliming processes, - PWP1-2.4x6.0 screening machines performing desliming processes, - PWP1-2.0x6.0 screens performing the classification process.
The article raised issues related to the design and execution of low-energy objects in Polish conditions. Based on the designed single-family house, adapted to the requirements of the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management ("NF40" standard), the tools to assist investment decisions by investors were shown. An economic analysis and a multi-criteria analysis were performed using AHP method which had provided an answer to the question whether it is worthwhile to bear higher investment costs in order to adjust to the standards of energy-efficient buildings that fulfil a minimal energy consumption's requirements contained in Polish law. In addition, the variant of object that had optimal characteristics due to the different preferences of investors was indicated. This paper includes analysis and observations on the attempts to unify that part of the building sector, which so far is considered to be personalized, and objects in accordance with the corresponding idea are designed as "custom-made".
Control of the technological processes of coal enrichment takes place in the presence of wide disturbances. Thus, one of the basic tasks of the coal enrichment process control systems is the stabilization of coal quality parameters at a preset level. An important problem is the choice of the controller which is robust for a variety of disturbances. The tuning of the controller parameters is no less important in the control process . Many methods of tuning the controller use the dynamic characteristics of the controlled process (dynamic model of the controlled object). Based on many studies it was found that the dynamics of many processes of coal enrichment can be represented by a dynamic model with properties of the inertial element with a time delay. The identification of object parameters (including the time constant) in industrial conditions is usually performed during normal operation (with the influence of disturbances) from this reason, determined parameters of the dynamic model may differ from the parameters of the actual process. The control system with controller parameters tuned on the basis of such a model may not satisfy the assumed control quality requirements. In the paper, the analysis of the influence of changes in object model parameters in the course of the controlled value has been carried out. Research on the controller settings calculated according to parameters T and τ were carried out on objects with other parameter values. In the studies, a sensitivity analysis method was used. The sensitivity analysis for the three methods of tuning the PI controller for the coal enrichment processes control systems characterized by dynamic properties of the inertial element with time delay has been presented. Considerations are performed at various parameters of the object on the basis of the response of the control system for a constant value of set point. The assessment of considered tuning methods based on selected indices of control quality have been implemented.
This article proposes a model describing the nature of associative processes as diagnostic cues for formulating attitudes and judgments. The assumption of the model is that attitudes, judgments and behaviours are based on how people selectively activate, interpret and integrate previously associated signals (selectively limiting the excess of information from both the senses and from our immediate environment). The model specifies which factors hinder or facilitate the formulation of associations between diagnostic signals and how it translates into attitudes, judgments and behaviours. To test the predictions derived from this model, we first showed that linguistic cues of diminutives can indicate physical properties – they were associated with the belief that the described objects were smaller but also worse or less valuable. The second line of research dealt with embodied moral judgments – we demonstrated that the usage of a hand over heart gesture led to more honest behaviour, an increase in judgments of honesty but also reduced tendency to lie for one's own profit. Our findings also suggest that using “standing at attention” body manipulation increased participants' submissiveness to the experimenter and their obedience to norms. This pattern of results suggests that the described model integrates perspectives of embodied cognition and social cognition, documenting the cognitive mechanism needed to formulate and adjust attitudes and judgments.
The main purpose of the presented research is to investigate the partial discharge (PD) phenomenon variability under long-term AC voltage with particular consideration of the selected physical quantities changes while measured and registered by the acoustic emission method (AE). During the research a PD model source generating surface discharges is immersed in the brand new insulation mineral oil. Acoustic signals generated by the continuously occurred PDs within 168 hours are registered. Several qualitative and quantitative indicators are assigned to describe the PD variability in time. Furthermore, some longterm characteristics of the applied PD model source in mineral oil, are also presented according to acoustic signals emitted by the PD. Finally, various statistical tools are applied for the results analysis and presentation. Despite there are numerous contemporary research papers dealing with long-term PD analysis, such complementary and multiparametric approach has not been presented so far, regarding the presented research. According to the presented research from among all assigned indicators there are discriminated descriptors that could depend on PD long-term duration. On the grounds of the regression models analysis there are discovered trends that potentially allow to apply the results for modeling of the PD variability in time using the acoustic emission method. Subsequently such an approach may potentially support the development and extend the abilities of the diagnostic tools and maintenance policy in electrical power industry.
In this paper methods and their examination results for automatic segmentation and parameterization of vessels based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the retina are presented. We present three strategies for morphologic image processing of a fundus image reconstructed from OCT scans. A specificity of initial image processing for fundus reconstruction is analysed. Then, the parameterization step is performed based on the vessels segmented with the proposed algorithm. The influence of various methods on the vessel segmentation and fully automatic vessel measurement is analysed. Experiments were carried out with a set of 3D OCT scans obtained from 24 eyes (12 healthy volunteers) with the use of an Avanti RTvue OCT device. The results of automatic vessel segmentation were numerically compared with those prepared manually by the medical doctor experts.
The accurate prediction of iron losses has become a prominent problem in electromagnetic machine design. The basis of all iron loss models is found in the spatial field-locus of the magnetic flux density (B) and magnetic field (H). In this paper the behavior of the measured BH-field-loci is considered in FEM simulation. For this purpose, a vector hysteresis model is parameterized based on the global measurements, which then can be used to reproduce the measurement system and obtain more detailed insights on the device and its local field distribution. The IEM has designed a rotary loss tester for electrical steel, which can apply arbitrary BH-field-loci occurring during electrical machine operation. Despite its simplicity, the proposed pragmatic analytical model for vector hysteresis provides very promising results.
The general objective of this research has been to identify the factors and conditions of migration of CaCO3 within glaciers and their marginal zones in Svalbard . Special attention has been paid to the cryochemical processes responsible for precipitation of calcium carbonate in icing (naled ice) formed near fronts of polythermal glaciers during winter. Estimates of the importance of those processes in respect of the general mineral mass transfer in the glacier system are attempted here. Field studies concerning the carbonate contents in proglacial sediments and icing fields were carried out in the Werenskioldbreen and the Elisebreen basins (S and NW Spitsbergen respectively). A functional model of CaCO3 migration in a glacier system is proposed which indicates the various paths of the mineral mass flow. Considerations on intensity of glacial processes permitted quantitative estimation of the particular components in respect to the Werenskioldbreen basin. Cryochemical processes do not appear to be of overriding importance in such migration but, clearly, they play a specific role in retaining CaCO3 in the proglacial zone on land. The crystalline forms present in the icings, which have many lattice defects, are very easily re-dissolved or removed by wind.
This article presented some critical remarks relating to the understanding of the panen-theism as a postmodern revelation, proposed by David Ray Griffin in his book Panentheism and Scientific Naturalism. Rethinking Evil, Morality, Religious Experience, Religious Pluralism, and the Academic Study of Religion. The main objection relates to the question that the American philosopher and theologian presents the philosophical, not theological conception of revelation. In addition he used the assumptions taken from process philosophy of A.N. Whitehead to construct this conception. The result of these assumptions is a new and original understanding of postmodernism. According to these assumptions panentheism is a conception that reflects properly the God-world relationship. Moreover, panentheism, as Griffin said, avoids mistakes of classical theism and extremes of early and late modernity. This panentheism is an integral part of naturalismppp. Griffin’s attempt to equate panentheism and revelation is based on the interaction recognized by him between God and the world. It manifests in the religious experiences and in the human drive to discover truth, which is, as Griffin said, a divinely-instilled drive. Process panentheism is the attempt to reconcile this revelation with the revelation that comes to us through the Abrahamic and other the-istic traditions. But it is difficult to accept that the revelation that comes to us from these religions, especially the revelation realized in Jesus Christ, gave rise to the recognition of the God-world relationship in terms of panentheism proposed by process theology
The mathematical model and numerical simulations of the solidification of a cylindrical shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity by liquid metal and feeding the casting through the riser during its solidification, are presented in the paper. Mutual dependence of thermal and flow phenomena were taken into account because have an essential influence on solidification process. The effect of the riser shape on the effectiveness of feeding of the solidifying casting was determined. In order to obtain the casting without shrinkage defects, an appropriate selection of riser shape was made, which is important for foundry practice. Numerical calculations of the solidification process of system consisting of the casting and the conical or cylindrical riser were carried out. The velocity fields have been obtained from the solution of momentum equations and continuity equation, while temperature fields from solving the equation of heat conductivity containing the convection term. Changes in thermo-physical parameters as a function of temperature were considered. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve the problem.
Many wire products (e.g. nets) are made from galvanized material. The hot dip galvanizing process gives the possibility of applying in a respectively thick coat of zinc (also depending on the time of staying wires in the bath) which provides the protection of the product against corrosion. In the available literature there were no research concerned with the influence of hot dip galvanizing process on the mechanical properties TRIP structure steel wires. Therefore, an experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions allowing the determination of the influence of hot dip galvanizing process parameters on the mechanical properties (tensile strength UST and yield strength YS) of TRIP steel wires as well as on the amount of retained austenite in their structure. It has been stated that the hot galvanizing process of TRIP steel wires influences, proportionally to the time of staying wires in zinc bath, on their plastic properties (the increase in yield strength YS) as well as the decrease in the amount of retained austenite in their structure. Such a phenomenon can be caused by stresses responsible for rapid heating of the wire put in the zinc bath in temperature of 450°C and by the strengthening of the materials resulting from the transformation of retained austenite.
The environment is the greatest good for the people. Everyone wants to breath air of the best possible quality, whether living in the city center of a metropolis or in a rural area. Air polluted with very fine particles contribute to the negative effect on people’s health and the whole environment. A significant part of air dust pollution comes from the so-called low emissions sources which include: non-standard furnaces, fireplaces, low-efficiency outdated boilers and local heat sources. Since the beginning of Polish Mining Group’s existence, the company actively participates and supports many activities, the aim of which is to improve the air quality by producing and supplying high quality coal for the residential sector. The company has undertaken pro-ecological activities towards creating a new, pro-ecological strategy as well as product offer. The production of an ecological coal assortment is systematically developing but new coal products are also being launched on the market. One of the company’s priorities is the production of thermal coal for the residential sector. Many organizational and technological changes have been made In that area (e.g. the establishmsnt of the Eco-Fuels Production Plant) to ensure a suitable level of production of the highest quality thermal coal.
On 24th March, 2017 Professor Józef Kozielecki passed away. He was a world renowned psychologist, a researcher into cognitive processes: thinking, problem solving, decision making. Professor Kozielecki was an author of the psychological theory of decision making, the theory of self-knowledge, and a founding father of the new direction in psychology, psychotransgressionism. An outstanding scholar, intellectual, theacher and a formative mentor for several generations of psychologists. He authored multiple important psychological monographs, for which he received national and international awards, for example, The Japanese Science Foundation award (1980) for his work on decision theory and The Jurzykowski Cultural Foundation award (1990) for his transgressive model of human beings. Professor Józef Kozielecki was a member of several prominent scientific societies such as the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, the Society for Judgment and Decision making and the European Society for Cognitive Psychology. He was also an Ordinary Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and in 2007 he received the honoris causa doctorate from the Catholic University of Lublin.
The paper presents the experimental study of a novel unsteady-statemembrane gas separation approach for recovery of a slow-permeant component in the membrane module with periodical retentate withdrawals. The case study consisted in the separation of binary test mixtures based on the fast-permeant main component (N2O, C2H2) and the slow-permeant impurity (1%vol. of N2) using a radial countercurrent membrane module. The novel semi-batch withdrawal technique was shown to intensify the separation process and provide up to 40% increase in separation efficiency compared to a steady-state operation of the same productivity.
Death is one of the key concepts present in the traditional image of the world. It means an end and is related to the process of wearing out and losing original properties. In folk anthropology, death is understood in terms of the transition from the earth world to the land of the dead, as the beginning of eternal existence. Death is one of the rites of passage and as such is correlated with other crucial moments of human existence, mainly with birth and marriage. Death is a common motif present in various genres of folklore. Researchers are interested in death predominantly because of its belief- and ritual-related image. The aim of the article is to analyse depictions of death in folk fablesand other kinds of prose works. Special emphasis is placed on the personifi cation of death as well as on its genesis and ontological status. The article also deals with the idea of death understood as both an event and a process, and it addresses death seen as a transcendental and unmaterialised force which determines a person’s life against his or her will.
The persons with intellectual disability have serious difficulties in language skills and consequently in the process of learning. The problems can be caused by Central Auditory Processing Disorders. In this paper we present research results on effectiveness of the Warnke method as a supporting tool in the development of language skills and in the process of education of children with such intellectual disabilities of mild degree.
Scientists around the world agree that nowadays, science is facing severe challenges like poor peer-review system, replicability crisis, or locked science behind paywalls. The National Science Center addresses at least some of them by introducing procedures that promote integrity, ethics, social responsibility, transparency, and openness in science.