Due to different reasons a significant modal shift from railway to road transport took place over last decades. The basic reasons are pointed in the paper introduction together with contradicting transport policy taking into account environmental and economical challenges. Political vision to stimulate modal shift from road and air to railway cannot become true without achieving railway technical and operational interoperability. Paper describes wide range of technical barriers between individual intraoperable railway systems in civil engineering structures, traction power supply, control command and signalling and the ways, which are being applied to ensure stepwise converging of the technical solutions taking into account safety and technical compatibility, as well as other essential requirements, namely: reliability, accessibility, health and environment.
The aim of the paper is to draw attention to risks and challenges faced by the national grid infrastructure both in the area of transmission and distribution. The study presents the characteristics of the network grid in the area of transmission and distribution. The threats concerning the transmission and distribution infrastructure were also discussed. Both the national transmission and the distribution grids are adapted to presently occurring typical conditions of the demand on electricity and to the execution of internal tasks in normal states, but they may pose a potential threat to the security of the energy supplies. In the context of the forecasted future growth of the electricity demand, the insufficient capacity of the National Power System in domestic sources and sources available through interconnections, the uneven distribution of sources and customers with the lack of adequate grid transmission capacity, the necessity to improve the quality and reliability of energy supply to end users and to intensively develop renewable energy sources, the current grid infrastructure in the area of transmission and distribution will be insufficient. It will be necessary to expand and modernize the 400 and 220 kV transmission grid, the 110 kV distribution grid, in large urban agglomerations in particular, the MV distribution grid in rural areas in particular, and to implement investments aimed at increasing the export and import capacities of the National Power System. The paper presents challenges faced by transmission and distribution system operators. They mainly concern the field of investments and the area related to the preparation and implementation of investments in the grid. These challenges result from national legislation which is inappropriate and imposes many legal and administrative barriers substantially limiting the speed and effectiveness of the investment process.
Blockchain is a technology, which could revolutionize many industries in the future. A system like that is based on a chain of blocks that is used for storing and transferring various data, forming a decentralized ledger. Although various fundamental projects based on the blockchain system in the energy industry are in their early stage of development, as well as other solutions, applications of blockchain technology in the broadly understood power engineering sector are considered to have a very large potential. This paper presents a brief description of the blockchain technology, its general operating principle and the possibilities it brings. The next section of the article contains a characterization of two exemplary and possible blockchain technology applications, which in the perspective of time may have a significant impact on the power engineering sector. The first solution is related to carrying out energy transactions, which could be conducted in an easy way directly between energy producers and consumers. Thanks to blockchain technology, this could lead to a partial decentralization in that area. The second proposed example concerns energy resources origin tracking, which would allow fixed origin attributes and parameters affecting the environment to be assigned to the generated energy. By implementing that solution, it would be possible to construct a fuel footprint of individual generating units. The article also mentions examples of other potential applications of blockchain technology in the power engineering sector.
The article analyses selected aspects of the technology and logistics used to modernise a coal-fired heating plant to switch to woodchips, which is illustrated with a specific investment. The study presents characteristics of the investment’s heat economy before the modernisation, as well as the assumptions and program of the project. Finally, selected effects of the modernisation have been described
The new efficient method of modeling and thermodynamic analysis of power engineering systems has been presented. With its help a comparison of different structures and investigation of the influence of a particular constituent process onto the whole system efficiency is possible. The shaft work or the exergy is the main thermodynamic quantity taken into account in analyses, and the appropriate dimensionless modeling parameter has been introduced.
The national power industry is based primarily on its own energy mineral resources such as hard and brown coal. Approximately 80% of electrical energy production from these minerals gives us complete energy independence and the cost of its production from coal is the lowest in comparison to other sources. Poland has, for many decades had vast resources of these minerals, the experience of their extraction and processing, the scientific-design facilities and technical factories manufacturing machines and equipment for own needs, as well as for export. Nowadays coal is and should be an important source of electrical energy and heat for the next 25–50 years, because it is one of the most reliable and price acceptable energy sources. This policy may be disturbed over the coming decades due to the depletion of active resources of hard and brown coal. The conditions for new mines development as well as for all coal mining sector development in Poland are very complicated in terms of legislation, environment, economy and image. The authors propose a set of strategic changes in the formal conditions for acquiring mining licenses. The article gives a signal to institutions responsible for national security that without proposed changes implementation in the legal and formal process it, will probably not be possible to build next brown coal, hard coal, zinc and lead ore or other minerals new mines.
This paper describes the use of new methods of detecting faults in medium-voltage overhead lines built of covered conductors. The methods mainly address such faults as falling of a conductor, contacting a conductor with a tree branch, or falling a tree branch across three phases of a medium-voltage conductor. These faults cannot be detected by current digital relay protection systems. Therefore, a new system that can detect the above mentioned faults was developed. After having tested its operation, the system has already been implemented to protect mediumvoltage overhead lines built of covered conductors.