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Number of results: 8
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Abstract

During potato desiccation the above-ground parts can be destroyed by mechanical, mechanical-chemical, or chemical methods. In the current study, the mechanical-chemical method was used and instead of chemical compounds natural nonanoic acid (pelargonic acid) was used. Nonanoic acid is a natural active ingredient that can be extracted from vegetable oil (rapeseed oil). It is a short chain fatty acid and a natural product, that fits well with the principles of the Green Revolution, which has introduced restrictions worldwide on the use of chemical plant protection products and promotes natural ones. For comparison carfentrazone-ethyl and glufosinate-ammonium were used. Studies were carried out in Poland during 2012–2014 with the potato variety Ikar, which is known to be among the varieties difficult to desicccate in Poland. The results show that potato leaves were efficiently destroyed by both nonanoic acid and chemicals (carfentrazone-ethyl and glufosinate-ammonium). The level of destruction varied from 94.5% to 99%. The level of stalk drying caused by nonanoic acid was high and it was similar to that of chemical desiccants. None of the studied desiccants significantly affected yield, vascular necrosis or quantity of starch in tubers.
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Abstract

The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), has become a widespread pest causing serious losses in several economically important crops, particularly cotton. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of cotton mealybug, P. solenopsis as a new pest of potato plants in Egypt. The insect was noticed on potato plants for the first time during the growing season of 2016 (mid-August 2016). Mealybug specimens were collected from infested potato plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this insect pest species, seven insecticides viz. sulfoxaflor, abamectin + thiamethoxam, spirotetramat, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, buprofezin, and pymetrozine, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their effect against nymphs and adult females of P. solenopsis on potato under field conditions. The obtained results indicated that sulfoxaflor, abamectin + thiamethoxam and spirotetramat had the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 80.3–96.05% reduction of the insect population after 21 days of application. Thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, buprofezin and pymetrozine failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.
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Abstract

Potato white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important plant disease occurring in many potato-producing areas throughout the world. In this study, a specific diagnostic method was used to detect and quantify S. sclerotiorum ascospores, and its forecasting ability was assessed in potato fields during flowering periods of 2011 to 2014 in Bahar County, Hamedan Province. Using GenEMBL database, a primer pair, HZSCREV and HZSCFOR, was designed and optimized for the pathogen. After testing the sensitivity of primers, DNA was extracted from samples of outdoor Burkard traps from potato fields. A linear association was observed between pathogen DNA and the number of ascospores using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique in the presence of SYBR dye. The qPCR could successfully detect DNA amounts representing two S. sclerotiorum ascospores and was not sensitive to a variety of tested fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria brassicae, Fusarium solani. In contrast to the amount of rainfall, a direct relationship was found between ascospore numbers and the incidence of potato white mold from 2011 to 2014.
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Abstract

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most destructive viruses infecting potato in Egypt and worldwide. Recent research has shown that a necrotic PVY-NTN strain is infecting potato in Upper Egypt. Chemical control is not effective to control this viral pathogen. An alternative to control PVY infecting potato is using a mild PVY strain to elicit systemic cross protection in potato plants against infection with a severe necrotic strain of PVY. Results of this study showed that a PVY necrotic strain produced a significant lesser number of local lesions on diagnostic plants (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) when these plants were treated first with a mild PVY strain. Data obtained from greenhouse and field experiments indicated that treatment of potato plants (variety Burna) with a mild PVY strain significantly protected potato from infection with a severe necrotic PVY strain, and resulted in a significant increase in tuber yield compared with infected plants without prior treatment with a mild PVY strain. The highest increase in potato tuber yield was obtained when potato plants were inoculated with a mild PVY strain 3 days before challenging with the severe necrotic PVY strain. This study proved that using a mild strain of PVY can significantly protect potato plants from infection with a severe strain of this virus under both greenhouse and field conditions and can present a potential method to reduce losses due to infection of this virus in Assiut governorate and Upper Egypt.
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Abstract

Potato leaf blight disease caused by Ulocladium atrum (Syn. Stemphylium atrum) is an important and epidemic disease in potato-growing regions of Iran. In this study, 30 isolates of the disease were collected from the main potato-growing regions of Iran and were analyzed on the basis of morphological characterization and pathogenicity. Based on morphological characteristics, all isolates were identified as U. atrum. Pathogenicity studies indicated that all 30 isolates were pathogenic on potato “Agria” to varying degrees. Five U. atrum isolates causing potato leaf blight disease, obtained from the Plant Pathology Laboratory, Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources, Isfahan, Iran, were also examined in this study. A total of 35 isolates were genetically analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted pair group method with the arithmetic average (UPGMA) method for RAPD marker revealed no clear grouping of the isolates obtained from different geographical regions. The groupings, based on morphological characteristics, virulence variability and RAPD analysis, were not correlated. Cluster analysis using Jaccard’s coefficient for ISSR divided the U. atrum isolates into four main groups, in which there was no significant correlation between the isolate groupings regarding their geographic location and pathogenicity. Using molecular techniques genetic variability was detected among the accessions, with cophenetic correlation coefficients (CCC) of 0.80 for RAPDs and 0.89 for ISSRs. The RAPD and ISSR marker results corresponded well, with a correlation of 0.55.
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Abstract

The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes widespread disease and has severe negative effects on the growth and yields of plants, especially those of the Solanaceae family. The consequences of residual toxicity and non-biodegradation of synthetic chemicals and pollution of the environment has led to investigations into new non-toxic and biological treatments to control plant viral diseases. Ethanolic extracts of Bowiea volubilis (bulbs), Cotyledon orbiculata (leaves), Gomphocarpus fruticosus (leaves), Merwilla plumbea (dry and fresh bulbs), Nerium oleander (leaves), and the fruits and leaves of Strophanthus speciosus, were evaluated against PVYNTN in vivo and in vitro. At a concentration of 20 mg · ml−1, ethanolic extracts of Strophanthus speciosus (leaves) and fruits (50 mg · ml−1) significantly reduced the expression of PVYNTN symptoms on tobacco plants in vitro without affecting the normal growth and development of the plant. Similarly, at 50 mg · ml−1, N. oleander, C. orbiculata and B. volubilis (fresh bulbs) and S. speciousus leaves at 20 mg · ml−1 extracts showed significant differences in PVYNTN symptoms in the in vivo experiment. Strophanthus speciosus leaf and fruit extracts showed significant inhibition in the in vitro and in vivo assays and demonstrated that S. speciosus has potential to be used as an antiphytoviral treatment.
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Abstract

Effective control of Leptinotarsa decemlineata remains an urgent problem for agriculture worldwide. Minimization of the use of non-selective neonicotinoid insecticides, such as thiomethoxam, is an actual vector of development of potato cultivation. In this rapid communication, we show the prospect of the topical use of short unmodified antisense fragment of L. decemlineata CYP6B gene as a DNA insecticide. Investigated parameters, namely, number of larvae per plant, aboveground biomass, yield and number of potatoes produced per plant indicate the possibility of this post-genomic approach as a safe and effective method of L. decemlineata control.
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