The reason for undertaking this study was to determine the possible involvement of natural convection in the global heat transfer, that occurs in the heated steel rods bed. This problem is related to the setting of the effective thermal conductivity of the bars bed. This value is one of the boundary conditions for heating modeling of steel rods bundles during heat treatment. The aim of this study was to determine for which geometry of the bed bars, there will be no free convection. To analyze the problem the Rayleigh criterion was used. It was assumed that for the value of the number Ra < 1700 convection in the bed bars does not occur. For analysis, the results of measurements of the temperature distribution in the unidirectionally heated beds of bars were used. It has been shown, that for obtained, during the test, differences of temperature between the surfaces of adjacent rods, convection can occur only when the diameter of the rod exceeds 18 mm.
Characterization of sound absorbing materials is essential to predict its acoustic behaviour. The most commonly used models to do so consider the flow resistivity, porosity, and average fibre diameter as parameters to determine the acoustic impedance and sound absorbing coefficient. Besides direct experimental techniques, numerical approaches appear to be an alternative to estimate the material's parameters. In this work an inverse numerical method to obtain some parameters of a fibrous material is presented. Using measurements of the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient and then using the model proposed by Voronina, subsequent application of basic minimization techniques allows one to obtain the porosity, average fibre diameter and density of a sound absorbing material. The numerical results agree fairly well with the experimental data.
Porous materials are used in many vibro-acoustic applications. Different models describe their perfor- mance according to material’s intrinsic characteristics. In this paper, an evaluation of the effect of the porous and geometrical parameters of a liner on the acoustic power attenuation of an axisymmetric lined duct was performed using multimodal scattering matrix. The studied liner is composed by a porous ma- terial covered by a perforated plate. Empirical and phenomenal models are used to calculate the acoustic impedance of the studied liner. The later is used as an input to evaluate the duct attenuation. By varying the values of each parameter, its influence is observed, discussed and deduced