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Abstract

This article, as far as possible based on the available literature, empirical measurements, and data from mesoscale models describes and compares expected wind conditions within the Baltic Sea area. This article refers to aspects related to the design and assessment of wind farm wind resources, based on the author’s previous experience related to onshore wind energy. The consecutive chapters of this publication are going to describe the present state and the presumptions relating to the development of wind energy within the Baltic Sea area. Subsequently, the potential of the sea was assessed using mesoscale models and empirical data from the Fino 2 mast that is located approximately 200 kilometers away from the majority of areas indicated in the Polish marine spatial development plan draft of Poland for offshore wind farm development (Maritime Office in Gdynia 2018). In the chapter describing mesoscale models, the author focused his attention on the GEOS5.12.4 model as the source of Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application 2 data, also known as MERRA2 (Administration National Aeronautics and Space Agency, 28), which, starting from February 2016, replaced MERRA data (Thogersen et al. 2016) and have gained a wide scope of applications in the assessment of pre-investment and operational productivity due to a remarkable level of correlation with in-situ data. Model-specific data has been obtained for eight locations, which largely overlap with the locations of the currently existing offshore wind farms within the Baltic Sea area. A significant part of this publication is going to be devoted to the description of the previously mentioned Fino 2 mast and to the analysis of data recorded until the end of 2014 by using the said mast (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency 2018). The analysis has been carried out by means using scripts made in the VBA programming language, making it easier to work with large chunks of data. Measurements from the Fino 2 mast, together with long-term mesoscale model-specific measurements can be used, to some extent, for the preliminary assessment of wind farm energy yield in the areas designated for the development of renewable energy in the Polish exclusive maritime economic zone (Maritime Office in Gdynia 2018). In the final part of this article, pieces of information on the forecasted Baltic Sea wind conditions, especially within the exclusive economic zone of Poland, are going to be summarized. A major focus is going to be put on the differences between offshore and onshore wind energy sources, as well as on further aspects, which should be examined in order to optimize the offshore wind power development.
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Abstract

Jednym z podstawowych celów realizacji sondaży o charakterze porównawczym jest wnioskowanie o międzykulturowych różnicach opartych na pomiarze pewnych konstruktów latentnych. Porównania takie są uzasadnione, jeśli tylko owe konstrukty mierzą w każdym kraju to samo oraz w taki sam sposób. Celem tego artykułu jest weryfikacja hipotezy o ekwiwalentności pomiaru skali zaufania politycznego w dwudziestu krajach uczestniczących w siódmej rundzie Europejskiego Sondażu Społecznego. Analiza stopnia dopasowania modeli pomiarowych opartych na równaniach strukturalnych pozwoliła przyjąć hipotezę o konfiguralnej oraz metrycznej ekwiwalentności pomiaru skali zaufania politycznego. Jednocześnie odrzucono hipotezę o pełnej inwariancji skalarnej tego konstruktu, przy czym najbardziej problematyczny okazał się pomiar wskaźnika zaufania do systemu prawnego. Na zakończenie ukazano możliwości wnioskowania o międzykrajowych różnicach w poziomie zaufania politycznego, pomimo odrzucenia hipotezy o pełnej inwariancji pomiarowej tego konstruktu.
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